Fighting Multidrug Resistance with Herbal Extracts Essential Oils and Their Components

Author: Mahendra Rai
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 0124017088
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Fighting Multidrug Resistance with Herbal Extracts, Essential Oils and their Components offers scientists a single source aimed at fighting specific multidrug-resistant (MDR) microorganisms such as bacteria, protozoans, viruses and fungi using natural products. This essential reference discusses herbal extracts and essential oils used or under investigation to treat MDR infections, as well as those containing antimicrobial activity that could be of potential interest in future studies against MDR microorganisms. The need to combat multidrug-resistant microorganisms is an urgent one and this book provides important coverage of mechanism of action, the advantages and disadvantages of using herbal extracts, essential oils and their components and more to aid researchers in effective antimicrobial drug discovery Addresses the need to develop safe and effective approaches to coping with resistance to all classes of antimicrobial drugs Provides readers with current evidence-based content aimed at using herbal extracts and essential oils in antimicrobial drug development Includes chapters devoted to the activity of herbal products against herpes, AIDS, tuberculosis, drug-resistant cancer cells and more

Fighting Multidrug Resistance with Herbal Extracts Essential Oils and Their Components

Author: M.L. Faleiro
Publisher: Elsevier Inc. Chapters
ISBN: 0128066776
Format: PDF, ePub
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Aromatic and medicinal plants, through their secondary metabolism, provide a complex mixture of volatile molecules known as essential oils. These volatile molecules exert antibacterial activity that has been used in folk medicine for centuries. During the last few decades, the emergence of antibacterial resistance has forced us to search for new and efficient antimicrobial agents. The significant number of studies on the use of essential oils and their components against multidrug-resistant bacteria, such as Acinetobacter baumannii, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa show the exceptional potential of these natural products to curb the development of antibacterial resistance. Moreover, the use of essential oils and their components in combination with antibiotics may increase bacterial susceptibility, thus limiting resistance.

Fighting Multidrug Resistance with Herbal Extracts Essential Oils and Their Components

Author: Ali Parsaeimehr
Publisher: Elsevier Inc. Chapters
ISBN: 0128066830
Format: PDF, Docs
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In today’s world, multidrug resistance appears to be one of the major health problems; however, screening, discovering and presenting novel effectual phytochemicals from medicinal plants have provided a promising outlook. Phytomedicines have been used for treating diseases and infections since time immemorial, but identifying new phytochemicals and effectual treatment strategies are essential in the fight against multidrug-resistant bacteria. Currently, isolated compounds such as α-mangostin, carnosic acid, epigallocatechin gallate, linalool, myricetin, novoimanin, α-terpineol, and totarol, have exhibited synergistic activity with antibiotics against resistant bacteria. This chapter presents information on multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria and the use of herbal extracts against them.

Fighting Multidrug Resistance with Herbal Extracts Essential Oils and Their Components

Author: Kateryna Volodymyrivna Kon
Publisher: Elsevier Inc. Chapters
ISBN: 0128066814
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High prevalence of multidrug-resistant microorganisms in the etiologic structure of different infectious processes significantly decreases the effectiveness of the treatment and enhances the probability of an unfavorable outcome from the infection. Combinations between antibiotics and other antimicrobial agents represent one of the most promising approaches for combating multidrug-resistant bacteria. A high therapeutic potential exists for combinations of antibiotics and natural antimicrobial substances with complex mechanisms of action and multiple healing properties, such as plant essential oils. The purpose of the present chapter is to review published studies on antibiotic-essential oil combinations and discuss the prospects for future studies. In general, many studies have shown the potential for essential oils to act synergistically with antibiotics in vitro. The main proposed mechanism of this beneficial effect is through inhibition of efflux pumps by some essential oils, which restores the activity of the antibiotic. Future efforts should be directed into further studies of antibiotic-essential oil combinations against multidrug-resistant bacteria, with an emphasis on understanding the mechanisms of the produced effect. Combinations of essential oils with different types of antimicrobial agents, such as bacteriophages, nanoparticles, and quorum-sensing inhibitors, require greater attention and are worthy of future investigations.

Fighting Multidrug Resistance with Herbal Extracts Essential Oils and Their Components

Author: Lyndy McGaw
Publisher: Elsevier Inc. Chapters
ISBN: 0128066849
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Many bacterial diseases affect animals, causing important economic losses in livestock. Subtherapeutic antibiotic use in production animals as antibiotic growth promoters has been implicated as a causative factor in the development of resistance of bacterial pathogens toward several classes of antimicrobials, some of which are used therapeutically in humans. This has led to the banning of antibiotic growth promoters by the European Union, and such a precedent may be followed in other countries. Alternatives to antibiotic growth promoters are necessary to enable the production of animal protein to keep pace with the expanding world population. One approach is to use plant extracts or essential oils as supplements to provide beneficial effects, including direct antibacterial activity and stimulation of the immune system, or enhancement of ruminal digestion. The risk of resistance developing to a combination of phytochemicals is lower than the risk of resistance against a single antibiotic, and synergistic effects of plant constituents may contribute to the overall activity of the preparation.

Fighting Multidrug Resistance with Herbal Extracts Essential Oils and Their Components

Author: Victor Kuete
Publisher: Elsevier Inc. Chapters
ISBN: 0128066741
Format: PDF, Mobi
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The development of vancomycin resistance by some microbial strains has made the treatment of some infections more difficult and, in many cases, impossible. Although the search for new drugs against vancomycin-resistant organisms has been very successful, resistance can arise against many of these compounds. Natural products are an invaluable source of a diversity of biologically active compounds for addressing the challenges facing drug development initiatives to combat vancomycin-resistant enterococcal infections. Despite the fact that scientific data on plant metabolites active against vancomycin-resistant enterococci remain scarce, some compounds (including terpenoids and phenolics) have been reported to have inhibitory effects at various levels. This chapter describes the state of the art of research into plant bioactive metabolites against vancomycin-resistant enterococci, highlighting the hit compounds.

Fighting Multidrug Resistance with Herbal Extracts Essential Oils and Their Components

Author: M. Fawzi Mahomoodally
Publisher: Elsevier Inc. Chapters
ISBN: 0128066865
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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Infectious diseases are responsible for one in every two deaths in many developing countries, but people in sub-Saharan Africa are particularly vulnerable, as poverty is rampant and access to health care is limited. Additionally, the unregulated use of antibiotics in some parts of Africa has led to the emergence of resistance in pathogens. Indeed, one of the biggest pandemics is malaria, which kills millions annually. Currently, artemisinin (effective against chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium) is the only weapon available to fight this pandemic, yet the World Health Organization has reported with concern that some countries in Southeast Asia are beginning to witness resistance to artemisinin. As a consequence, increasing attention is being drawn to botanicals, as they have the potential to provide alternative and complementary therapies, as well as potential leads to address emerging infections and resistance. This chapter will review some medicinal plants from the African Herbal Pharmacopoeia that show promise for containing existing and emerging infectious diseases.

Fighting Multidrug Resistance with Herbal Extracts Essential Oils and Their Components

Author: Valerie Edwards-Jones
Publisher: Elsevier Inc. Chapters
ISBN: 0128066725
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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The global increase in antimicrobial resistance has led to renewed interest in alternative antimicrobial treatment strategies. Research is being done into a wide range of possible treatment regimens, including phage therapy, novel vaccines, and novel peptides, to name a few. Many microbiologists continue to lobby their governments to ensure that the available antibiotics are retained for the treatment of serious infections and their inappropriate use is stopped. In addition, large pharmaceutical companies are being encouraged to develop new treatments for the future. Much research now focuses on medicinal plants and essential oils. These and other alternative approaches are outlined in this chapter.

Fighting Multidrug Resistance with Herbal Extracts Essential Oils and Their Components

Author: Adil M. Allahverdiyev
Publisher: Elsevier Inc. Chapters
ISBN: 0128066881
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections comprise one of the most important health problems worldwide. HSV-1 and HSV-2 that are the types most frequently seen in disease, manifested by sores and blisters on the mouth, tongue, skin, and genitals of infected individuals. Moreover, herpetic infections can reach life-threatening levels; for instance, HSV-2 prevalence has increased greatly in human immunodeficiency virus-positive patients. This indicates that the herpetic infection could be a major cause of morbidity in immunosuppressed patients. Unfortunately, resistance against antiherpetic drugs has recently been reported. Therefore there is an immediate need to search for new antiviral agents in order to cope with HSV infections. Recently, it has been demonstrated that traditional medicinal plants have strong antiviral activity and some are already being used in the treatment of viral infections, including herpes simplex infections. Accordingly, this chapter aims to present published information on various herbal compounds, investigate the antiherpetic effectiveness of these compounds, and determine the potential of plants as herpetic treatments in the future.

Fighting Multidrug Resistance with Herbal Extracts Essential Oils and Their Components

Author: Philip G. Kerr
Publisher: Elsevier Inc. Chapters
ISBN: 0128066768
Format: PDF
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In the search for successful antitubercular treatments, investigators have often turned their efforts to ethnobotany, ethnopharmacology, and phytochemistry. Since many of the world’s peoples have well-developed systems of traditional medicine with plants and their extracts as a major component and many of these plants have been used to treat tuberculosis, indigenous herbal medicine is a logical starting point for a research program. The major aims in this chapter are to summarize current antitubercular treatments; look for structural patterns in molecules that have been used successfully in the therapeutics of tuberculosis; examine published evidence of natural products derived principally from macrophytic species with an anecdotal reputation as antitubercular treatments or that have been deliberately tested for antitubercular activity; and identify promising structural classes of plant metabolites that can serve as lead compounds. Finally, I would like to indicate some of the directions being followed by leading researchers in the field and suggest ways forward in drug discovery to treat multidrug-resistant tuberculosis.