Finely Dispersed Particles

Author: Aleksandar M. Spasic
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1420027662
Format: PDF, ePub
Download Now
Over the last decade, the biggest advances in physical chemistry have come from thinking smaller. The leading edge in research pushes closer to the atomic frontier with every passing year. Collecting the latest developments in the science and engineering of finely dispersed particles and related systems, Finely Dispersed Particles: Micro-, Nano-, and Atto-Engineering explores heat, mass, momentum and electron transfer phenomena of well-characterized interfaces at the milli-, micro-, nano-, and atto-scales. An interdisciplinary team of leading experts from around the world discuss recent concepts in the physics and chemistry of various well-studied interfaces of rigid and deformable particles in homo- and hetero-aggregate dispersed systems, including emulsions, dispersoids, foams, fluosols, polymer membranes, and biocolloids. The contributors clearly elucidate the hydrodynamic, electrodynamic, and thermodynamic instabilities that occur at interfaces, as well as the rheological properties of interfacial layers responsible for droplets, particles, and droplet-particle-film structures in finely dispersed systems. The book examines structure and dynamics from various angles, such as relativistic and non-relativistic theories, molecular orbital methods, and transient state theories. With a comprehensive survey of our current understanding, Finely Dispersed Particles: Micro-, Nano-, and Atto-Engineering provides a solid platform for further exploration and discovery at increasingly smaller scales.

Emulsions and Emulsion Stability

Author: Johan Sjoblom
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1420028081
Format: PDF, ePub
Download Now
Emulsions and Emulsion Stability, Second Edition provides comprehensive coverage of both theoretical and practical aspects of emulsions. The book presents fundamental concepts and processes in emulsified systems, such as flocculation, coalescence, stability, precipitation, deposition, and the evolution of droplet size distribution. The book explains how to predict emulsion stability and determine droplet sizes in a variety of emulsion systems. It discusses spontaneous emulsification and the formation of “nanoemulsions” as well as droplet-droplet interactions in different electrical fields (electrocoalescence), and the formulation, composition, and preparation variables that contribute to the inversion in emulsion systems. Several chapters emphasize applications such as emulsification encountered in oil spills, asphalt, chemical flooding, acid crude oils, and large-scale industrial wastewater treatment. The survey of experimental characterization methods highlights the importance of thin liquid films in colloidal systems and assesses different NMR applications, ultrasound characterization, video microscopy, and other on-line instrumentation. The last chapter in the book deals with obtaining conductivity measurements as an alternative to online instrumentation. Completely revised and expanded, this second edition of Emulsions and Emulsion Stability offers a well-rounded collection of knowledge that is applicable to all academic and industrial scientists and researchers in the fields of surfactant and emulsion science.

Sugar Based Surfactants

Author: Cristóbal Carnero Ruiz
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9781420051674
Format: PDF
Download Now
Touted as the new darling of the chemical industry, alkyl polyglycosides are gaining in popularity due to the fact that they are readily biodegradable, low-toxic, and made from renewable resources. Sugar-Based Surfactants compiles the most recent and relevant aspects of sugar-based surfactants, including self-association, phase behavior, and interfacial properties. Focusing on both colloidal and interfacial science, the book deals with the adsorption of surfactants in both the air-liquid and solid-liquid interfaces. It also covers new advances in surfactant science, such as the development of a family of potent surface active agents that are non-toxic, and thus usable in ubiquitous consumer products

The Science of Defoaming

Author: Peter R. Garrett
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1420060422
Format: PDF
Download Now
In the 20 years since the publication of the author’s multi-contributor volume on defoaming, a vast amount of new work has been published and many new insights have been revealed. A cohesive, single-authored book, The Science of Defoaming: Theory, Experiment and Applications provides comprehensive coverage of the topic. It describes the mode of action of antifoams, presenting the relevant theory and the supporting experimental evidence. Beginning with an introductory chapter that discusses the intrinsic properties of foam, the book then describes experimental methods for measuring foam properties important for studying antifoam action and techniques used in establishing the mode of action of antifoams. Since most commercially effective antifoams are oil based, a chapter is devoted to the entry and spreading behavior of oils and the role of thin film forces in determining that behavior. The book reviews the mode of action of antifoams, including theories of antifoam mechanisms and the role of bridging foam films by particles and oil drops. It also addresses issues related to the effect of antifoam concentration on foam formation by air entrainment and the process of deactivation of mixed oil–particle antifoams during dispersal and foam generation. For applications where chemical antifoam use is unacceptable, the text examines mechanical means of defoaming, such as the use of rotary devices and ultrasound. The final chapters consider the application of defoaming in radically different contexts including waterborne latex paints and varnishes, machine washing of textiles, gas–oil separation in crude oil production, and cardiopulmonary bypass surgery. Focusing on the basic science of defoaming, this book presents a balanced view, which also addresses the challenges that may arise for these specific defoaming applications.

Surface Charging and Points of Zero Charge

Author: Marek Kosmulski
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9781420051896
Format: PDF, Docs
Download Now
The Most Detailed Resource Available on Points of Zero Charge With their work growing in complexity, chemists involved with surface phenomena-related projects have outgrown the common resources available to them on points of zero charge (PZC) of oxides. Reporting on a limited number of materials in a limited number of scenarios, these resources often leave scientists wondering if the variances reported in the results they depend upon are due to actual differences in properties among particular samples or due to differences between isoelectric points (IEP) and points of zero charges obtained by titration. Taking on the monumental task of building a complete reference, Marek Kosmulski, a leading authority in the field of surface chemistry (Hirsch index of 22), takes a new approach to provide chemists with the most detailed resource on the points of zero charge of oxides available to date. Surface Charging and Points of Zero Charge presents PZC data on well-defined specimens of materials sorted by trademark, manufacturer (commercial materials), location (natural materials), and specific recipe (synthetic materials). The text emphasizes the comparison between particular results obtained for different portions of the same or very similar material. Synthesizing information published in research reports over the past few decades, this invaluable reference: Characterizes materials in terms of thermochemical data, chemical composition (level of impurities), crystallographic structure, specific surface area (various methods), particular size, and morphology Provides additional references to more detailed sample characterization (SEM and TEM images, XRD patterns, and particle size distributions) Reviews the PZC and IEP--with all possible details regarding the method, type of instrument, and experimental conditions Pays special attention to correlations of the PZC and IEP with other physical quantities and properties, surface charging in mixed and nonaqueous solvents, surface charging at high ionic strengths, and ion-specificity in 1-1 electrolytes All available sources were used to obtain the data in this reference making it the definitive resource on PZC/IEP. Destined to become a classic, Surface Charging and Points of Zero Charge points the way for further research with tried and true methods that help researchers avoid the doubt that can lead to countless hours of unnecessary research. Erratum for this volume can be found on the author's website.

Electrokinetic Particle Transport in Micro Nanofluidics

Author: Shizhi Qian
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1439854386
Format: PDF, Docs
Download Now
Numerous applications of micro-/nanofluidics are related to particle transport in micro-/nanoscale channels, and electrokinetics has proved to be one of the most promising tools to manipulate particles in micro/nanofluidics. Therefore, a comprehensive understanding of electrokinetic particle transport in micro-/nanoscale channels is crucial to the development of micro-/nanofluidic devices. Electrokinetic Particle Transport in Micro-/Nanofluidics: Direct Numerical Simulation Analysis provides a fundamental understanding of electrokinetic particle transport in micro-/nanofluidics involving electrophoresis, dielectrophoresis, electroosmosis, and induced-charge electroosmosis. The book emphasizes the direct numerical simulation of electrokinetic particle transport phenomena, plus several supportive experimental studies. Using the commercial finite element package COMSOL Multiphysics®, it guides researchers on how to predict the particle transport subjected to electric fields in micro-/nanoscale channels. Researchers in the micro-/nanofluidics community, who may have limited experience in writing their own codes for numerical simulations, can extend the numerical models and codes presented in this book to their own research and guide the development of real micro-/nanofluidics devices. Corresponding COMSOL® script files are provided with the book and can be downloaded from the author’s website.

Nanoscience

Author: Victor M. Starov
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1420065017
Format: PDF, Mobi
Download Now
The common perception is that nanoscience is something entirely new, that it sprung forth whole and fully formed like some mythological deity. But the truth is that like all things scientific, nanoscience is the natural result of the long evolution of scientific inquiry. Following a historical trail back to the middle of the 19th century, nanoscience is the inborn property of colloid and interface science. What’s important today is for us to recognize that nanoparticles are small colloidal objects. It should also be appreciated that over the past decades, a number of novel nanostructures have been developed, but whatever we call them, we cannot forget that their properties and behavior are still in the realm of colloid and interface science. However one views it, the interest and funding in nano-science is a tremendous opportunity to advance critical research in colloid chemistry. Nanoscience: Colloidal and Interfacial Aspects brings together a prominent roster of 42 leading investigators and their teams, who detail the wide range of theoretical and experimental knowledge that can be successfully applied for investigating nanosystems, many of which are actually well-known colloidal systems. This international grouping of pioneering investigators from academia and industry use these pages to provide researchers of today and tomorrow with a full examination of nano-disperse colloids, homogeneous and heterogeneous nano-structured materials (and their properties), and shelf-organization at the nano-scale. This cutting-edge reference provides information on investigations into non-linear electrokinetic phenomena in nano-sized dispersions and nano-sized biological systems. It discusses application aspects of technological processes in great detail, providing scientists and engineers across all fields with authoritative commentary on colloid and interface science operating at the nanoscale. Nano-Science: Colloidal and Interfacial Aspects provides an authoritative resource for those wanting to familiarize themselves with current progress as well as for those looking to make their own impact on the development of new technologies and practical applications in fields as diverse as medicine, materials, and environmental science to name but a few. Whether you call the technology nano or colloids, the field continues to be ripe with opportunity.

Microemulsions

Author: Monzer Fanun
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9781420089608
Format: PDF, Docs
Download Now
The effective use of microemulsions has increased dramatically during the past few decades as major industrial applications have expanded in a variety of fields. Microemulsions: Properties and Applications provides a complete and systematic assessment of all topics affecting microemulsion performance and discusses the fundamental characteristics, theories, and applications of these dispersions. Thoroughly encompassing the significant developments of the past ten years, this book describes a wide range of topics, including interactions at microemulsion interfaces, new types of surfactants, and the fundamentals of nanotechnology. It outlines experimental and traditional measurement techniques in a variety of microemulsified systems and provides reliable coverage of applicable techniques. Theory and Characterization Methods The initial chapters cover theoretical aspects of microemulsion formulation, with particular focus on methodologies for preparation. The book also addresses characterization methods, including X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), light scattering, and small-angle neutron scattering. It includes discussions of viscosimetry, conductivity, ultrasonic velocity, and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Practical Applications The remainder of the coverage focuses on current and potential applications of microemulsions. The book examines commercial uses, including biocatalysis and enzymatic reactions, nutrition, the extraction of contaminated solids, pollution control, dispersion of drugs, and oil recovery. The contributors also discuss the use of microemulsions as a reaction medium for the formation of polymeric and inorganic nanoparticles, and applications in electrokinetic chromatography. Comprising the work of an international community of colloid scientists, this book explains why microemulsions are used for the intended application, how they are made, and how they react. Each chapter contains a description of the fundamental phenomena and principles involved in microemulsion processes, emphasizing the mechanism of microemulsion formation and deformation. A summary of recent research, the book eliminates the need to search through dozens of arcane online journal articles for critical information.