Freedom s Main Line

Author: Derek Catsam
Publisher: University Press of Kentucky
ISBN: 0813173108
Format: PDF, Mobi
Download Now
Black Americans in the Jim Crow South could not escape the grim reality of racial segregation, whether enforced by law or by custom. In Freedom’s Main Line: The Journey of Reconciliation and the Freedom Rides, author Derek Charles Catsam shows that courtrooms, classrooms, and cemeteries were not the only front lines in African Americans’ prolonged struggle for basic civil rights. Buses, trains, and other modes of public transportation provided the perfect means for civil rights activists to protest the second-class citizenship of African Americans, bringing the reality of the violence of segregation into the consciousness of America and the world. In 1947, nearly a decade before the Supreme Court voided school segregation in Brown v. Board of Education, sixteen black and white activists embarked on a four-state bus tour, called the Journey of Reconciliation, to challenge discrimination in busing and other forms of public transportation. Although the Journey drew little national attention, it set the stage for the more timely and influential 1961 Freedom Rides. After the Supreme Court’s 1960 ruling in Boynton v. Virginia that segregated public transportation violated the Interstate Commerce Act, the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) and other civil rights groups organized the Freedom Rides to test the enforcement of the ruling in buses and bus terminals across the South. Their goal was simple: “to make bus desegregation,” as a CORE press release put it, “a reality instead of merely an approved legal doctrine.” Freedom’s Main Line argues that the Freedom Rides, a turning point in the Civil Rights Movement, were a logical, natural evolution of such earlier efforts as the Journey of Reconciliation, their organizers following models provided by previous challenges to segregation and relying on the principles of nonviolence so common in the larger movement. The impact of the Freedom Rides, however, was unprecedented, fixing the issue of civil rights in the national consciousness. Later activists were often dubbed Freedom Riders even if they never set foot on a bus. With challenges to segregated transportation as his point of departure, Catsam chronicles black Americans’ long journey toward increased civil rights. Freedom’s Main Line tells the story of bold incursions into the heart of institutional discrimination, journeys undertaken by heroic individuals who forced racial injustice into the national and international spotlight and helped pave the way for the landmark Civil Rights Act of 1964.

Martin Luther King Jr and the Civil Rights Movement

Author: John A. Kirk
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317607325
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
Download Now
Martin Luther King, Jr is one of the iconic figures of 20th century history, and one of the most influential and important in the American Civil Rights Movement; John Kirk here presents the life of Martin Luther King in the context of that movement, placing him at the center of the Afro-American fight for equality and recognition. This book combines the insights from two fields of study, seeking to combine the top down; national federal policy-oriented approach to the movement with the bottom up, local grassroots activism approach to demonstrate how these different levels of activism intersect and interact with each other.

Malcolm X

Author: Britta Waldschmidt-Nelson
Publisher: C.H.Beck
ISBN: 3406675387
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
Download Now
Er galt als der "zornigste Mann Amerikas". Wohl kein anderer hat sich so radikal und sprachgewaltig für die Rechte der Schwarzen eingesetzt wie Malcolm X. Bis heute werden die USA in regelmäßigen Abständen von Rassenunruhen erschüttert - ein Phänomen, das ohne die lange Geschichte des amerikanischen Rassismus nicht zu verstehen ist. Malcolm X prangerte den weißen Rassismus seiner Zeit gnadenlos an und trat für das Recht der Schwarzen auf bewaffnete Selbstverteidigung ein. Daher zählt er nicht nur zu den bekanntesten, sondern auch zu den umstrittensten Personen der amerikanischen Geschichte. Am 21. Februar 1965 wurde er in New York ermordet. Britta Waldschmidt-Nelson erzählt dieses revolutionäre Leben und führt in die Geschichte des schwarzen Amerika ein. Dabei stützt sie sich auf die neueste Forschung, neu erschlossenes Quellenmaterial sowie auf Gespräche mit Weggefährten und Angehörigen.

The Road South

Author: B. J. Hollars
Publisher: University of Alabama Press
ISBN: 0817319808
Format: PDF, Docs
Download Now
Revisits the inspiring and heroic stories of the Freedom Riders, through their own words. In May 1961, despite multiple Supreme Court rulings, segregation remained alive and well within the system of interstate travel. All across the American South, interstate buses as well as their travel facilities were divided racially. This blatant disregard for law and morality spurred the Congress of Racial Equality to send thirteen individuals—seven black, six white—on a harrowing bus trip throughout the South as a sign of protest. These original riders were met with disapproval, arrests and violence along the way, but that did not stop the movement. That summer, more than four hundred Freedom Riders continued their journey—many of them concluding their ride at Mississippi’s notorious Parchman Farm, where they endured further abuses and indignities. As a result of the riders sacrifice, by November of 1961, the Interstate Commerce Commission finally put an end to interstate commerce segregation, and in the process, elevated the riders to become a source of inspiration for other civil rights campaigns such as voter registration rights and school desegregation. While much has been written on the Freedom Rides, far less has been published about the individual riders. Join award-winning author B. J. Hollars as he sets out on his own journey to meet them, retracing the historic route and learning the stories of as many surviving riders as he could. The Road South: Personal Stories of the Freedom Riders offers an intimate look into the lives and legacies of the riders. Throughout the book these civil rights veterans’ poignant, personal stories offer timely insights into America’s racial past and hopeful future. Weaving the past with the present, Hollars aims to demystify the legendary journey, while also confronting more modern concerns related to race in America. The Road South is part memoir and part research-based journalism. It transcends the traditional textbook version of this historical journey to highlight the fascinating stories of the many riders—both black and white—who risked their lives to move the country forward.

Eine kurze Geschichte der Menschheit

Author: Yuval Noah Harari
Publisher: DVA
ISBN: 364110498X
Format: PDF
Download Now
Krone der Schöpfung? Vor 100 000 Jahren war der Homo sapiens noch ein unbedeutendes Tier, das unauffällig in einem abgelegenen Winkel des afrikanischen Kontinents lebte. Unsere Vorfahren teilten sich den Planeten mit mindestens fünf weiteren menschlichen Spezies, und die Rolle, die sie im Ökosystem spielten, war nicht größer als die von Gorillas, Libellen oder Quallen. Vor 70 000 Jahren dann vollzog sich ein mysteriöser und rascher Wandel mit dem Homo sapiens, und es war vor allem die Beschaffenheit seines Gehirns, die ihn zum Herren des Planeten und zum Schrecken des Ökosystems werden ließ. Bis heute hat sich diese Vorherrschaft stetig zugespitzt: Der Mensch hat die Fähigkeit zu schöpferischem und zu zerstörerischem Handeln wie kein anderes Lebewesen. Anschaulich, unterhaltsam und stellenweise hochkomisch zeichnet Yuval Harari die Geschichte des Menschen nach und zeigt alle großen, aber auch alle ambivalenten Momente unserer Menschwerdung.

Die Freude des Evangeliums

Author: Franziskus (Papst),
Publisher: Verlag Herder GmbH
ISBN: 3451801507
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
Download Now
"Ich weiß sehr wohl, dass heute die Dokumente nicht dasselbe Interesse wecken wie zu anderen Zeiten und schnell vergessen werden. Trotzdem betone ich, dass das, was ich hier zu sagen beabsichtige, eine programmatische Bedeutung hat und wichtige Konsequenzen beinhaltet ... Ich wünsche mir eine arme Kirche für die Armen." Papst Franziskus Das vollständige Dokument plus Einführung und Themenschlüssel