Fuel Production from Non Food Biomass

Author: Barnabas Gikonyo
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 149872843X
Format: PDF, Docs
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The practice of converting corn to ethanol is controversial, with debates currently being raged in both public policy and science. While biofuels from corn have important implications in alleviating some of the global energy crisis, critics argue that it takes away from vital agricultural products needed to feed the world’s growing population. The current volume maintains there is a third way, a method of producing biofuel that only uses biomass that is left behind after all agricultural and nutritional products have been harvested from corn. This biomass is referred to as corn stover. The book serves as an important introduction to this method of producing biofuels from agricultural waste. Edited by a professor from the State University of New York, Geneseo, this reference is important not only for research scientists, but for students and public policy makers who wish to learn more about this alternative method of producing ethanol from corn. The sections found in Fuel Production from Non-Food Biomass: Corn Stover describe the following topics: An overview of why corn stover is a good alternative use of power The technology that makes this process possible on various scales Considerations for policy formation, including economic, land-use, and environmental arguments for and against using corn stover as a biofuel Although controversy still exists about the use of corn stover—with some critics saying that it will cause food shortages, particularly for developing nations—the research in this book focuses on using corn’s already existing, non-food biomass and argues that food and biofuel could potentially be produced from the same fields.

Biomass Biopolymer Based Materials and Bioenergy

Author: Deepak Verma
Publisher: Woodhead Publishing
ISBN: 0081024274
Format: PDF
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Biomass, Biopolymer-Based Materials and Bioenergy: Construction, Biomedical and Other Industrial Applications covers a broad range of material types, including natural fiber reinforced polymer composites, particulate composites, fiberboard, wood fiber composites, and plywood composite that utilize natural, renewable and biodegradable agricultural biomass. In terms of bioenergy, the authors explore not only the well-known processing methods of biofuels, but also the kinetics of biofuels production pathways, a techno-economic analysis on biomass gasification, and biomass gasification with further upgrading into diesel additives and hybrid renewable energy systems for power generation. Further chapters discuss advanced techniques for the development of biomass-based composites, biopolymer-based composites, biomass gasification, thermal kinetic design and techno-economic analysis of biomass gasification. By introducing these topics, the book highlights a totally new research theme in biopolymer-based composite materials and bioenergy. Covers a broad range of different research fields, including biopolymer and natural fiber reinforcement used in the development of composites Demonstrates key research themes in materials science and engineering, including materials processing, polymer science, biofuel processing, and thermal and kinetic studies Presents valuable information for those working in research and development departments, and for graduate students (Masters and PhDs)

Water Energy Food Sustainability in the Middle East

Author: Sohail Murad
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319489208
Format: PDF
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This book provides a survey of technologies available to tackle the problems associated with climate change in the energy, water and food security nexus with a special focus on the Middle East. It is divided into three main sections. The energy Section consists of six chapters, the water section of seven chapters and finally the food security section has six chapters. The individual chapters are authored by experts and provide discussions and in-depth views on the current status of each topic.

Green Aviation

Author: Ramesh Agarwal
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1118866509
Format: PDF
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Green Aviation is the first authoritative overview of both engineering and operational measures to mitigate the environmental impact of aviation. It addresses the current status of measures to reduce the environmental impact of air travel. The chapters cover such items as: Engineering and technology-related subjects (aerodynamics, engines, fuels, structures, etc.), Operations (air traffic management and infrastructure) Policy and regulatory aspects regarding atmospheric and noise pollution. With contributions from leading experts, this volume is intended to be a valuable addition, and useful resource, for aerospace manufacturers and suppliers, governmental and industrial aerospace research establishments, airline and aviation industries, university engineering and science departments, and industry analysts, consultants, and researchers.

Halophiles and Hypersaline Environments

Author: Antonio Ventosa
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9783642201981
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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This book presents the latest results in the exploration of halophilic bacteria, archaea, fungi and viruses. Basic and molecular aspects as well as possible biotechnological applications of halophiles are highlighted by leading scientists. Topics include: the family Halomonadaceae; the hypersaline lakes of Inner Mongolia ; Salinibacter ruber - from genomics to microevolution and ecology; the impact of lipidomics on the microbial world of hypersaline environments; molecular mechanisms of adaptation to high salt concentration in the black yeast Hortaea werneckii; viruses in hypersaline environments; initiation and regulation of translation in halophilic Archaea; protein transport into and across haloarchaeal cytoplasmic membranes; protein glycosylation in Haloferax volcanii; the effect of anoxic conditions and temperature on gas vesicle formation in Halobacterium salinarum; halophiles exposed to multiple stressors; cellular adjustments of Bacillus subtilis to fluctuating salinities; the nature and function of carotenoids in Halobacillus halophilus; xanthorhodopsin; enzymatic biomass degradation by halophilic microorganisms; and enzymes from halophilic Archaea.

Gasoline Diesel and Ethanol Biofuels from Grasses and Plants

Author: Ram B. Gupta
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1139489062
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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The world is currently faced with two significant problems: fossil fuel depletion and environmental degradation, which are continuously being exacerbated due to increasing global energy consumption. As a substitute for petroleum, renewable fuels have been receiving increasing attention due a variety of environmental, economic, and societal benefits. The first-generation biofuels - ethanol from sugar or corn and biodiesel from vegetable oils - are already on the market. The goal of thisbook is to introduce readers to second-generation biofuels obtained from non-food biomass, such as forest residue, agricultural residue, switch grass, corn stover, waste wood, municipal solid wastes, and so on. Various technologies are discussed, including cellulosic ethanol, biomass gasification, synthesis of diesel and gasoline, bio-crude by hydrothermal liquefaction, bio-oil by fast pyrolysis, and the upgradation of biofuel. This book strives to serve as a comprehensive document presenting various technological pathways and environmental and economic issues related to biofuels.

Towards a Cleaner Planet

Author: Jaime Klapp
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 354071345X
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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This book reviews the main energy sources, production problems and energy perspectives in Germany and Mexico. It surveys the status of traditional and alternative energy sources, including fossil fuels, nuclear, hydraulic, eolic, solar, and hydrogen cells. The book emphasizes the search for answers to such questions as What are the main problems of industries based on fossil fuels, and What is the present status of hydraulic and nuclear energy?

Energy Crops

Author: Nigel G. Halford
Publisher: Royal Society of Chemistry
ISBN: 1849730326
Format: PDF, Mobi
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This book is a comprehensive reference for energy crops from the plant perspective with expert authors for each crop. Of particular importance are the chapters covering the sustainability aspects (social, economic and environmental), including food security.

Optimization of Acid Hydrolysis in Ethanol Production from Prosopis juliflora

Author: Temesgen Atnafu
Publisher: GRIN Verlag
ISBN: 365633093X
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Master's Thesis from the year 2012 in the subject Engineering - Chemical Engineering, Addis Ababa University, language: English, abstract: Lignocellulosic materials (eg.Prosopis juliflora) can be utilized to produce ethanol, a promising alternative energy source for the limited crude oil. This study involved optimisation of acid hydrolysis in ethanol production from prosopis juliflora. The conversion of prosopis juliflora to ethanol can be achieved mainly by three process steps: pretreatment of prosopis juliflora wood to remove lignin and hemicellulose, acid hydrolysis of pretreated prosopis juliflora to convert cellulose into reducing sugar(glucose) and fermentation of the sugars to ethanol using Saccharomyces cerevisiae in anaerobic condition. A two level full factorial design with four factors, two levels and two replicas (24*2=32 experimental runs) was applied to optimize acid hydrolysis and study the interaction effects of acid hydrolysis factors, namely, acid concentration, solid fraction, temperature, and time. An optimization was carried out to optimize acid hydrolysis process variables so as to determine the best acid concentration, solid fraction, temperature, and contact time that resulted maximum ethanol yield. The screening of significant acid hydrolysis factors were done by using the two-level full factorial design using design expert® 7 software. The statistical analysis showed that the ethanol yield of (40.91% (g/g)) was obtained at optimised acid hydrolysis variables of 0.5%v/v acid concentration, 5%w/w solid fraction,105.01°C temperature, and 10 minutes hydrolysis time. Keywords: Prosopis juliflora, pretreatment, hydrolysis, fermentation, 2 level factorial, optimization.