Fuel Production from Non Food Biomass

Author: Barnabas Gikonyo
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 149872843X
Format: PDF, Mobi
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The practice of converting corn to ethanol is controversial, with debates currently being raged in both public policy and science. While biofuels from corn have important implications in alleviating some of the global energy crisis, critics argue that it takes away from vital agricultural products needed to feed the world’s growing population. The current volume maintains there is a third way, a method of producing biofuel that only uses biomass that is left behind after all agricultural and nutritional products have been harvested from corn. This biomass is referred to as corn stover. The book serves as an important introduction to this method of producing biofuels from agricultural waste. Edited by a professor from the State University of New York, Geneseo, this reference is important not only for research scientists, but for students and public policy makers who wish to learn more about this alternative method of producing ethanol from corn. The sections found in Fuel Production from Non-Food Biomass: Corn Stover describe the following topics: An overview of why corn stover is a good alternative use of power The technology that makes this process possible on various scales Considerations for policy formation, including economic, land-use, and environmental arguments for and against using corn stover as a biofuel Although controversy still exists about the use of corn stover—with some critics saying that it will cause food shortages, particularly for developing nations—the research in this book focuses on using corn’s already existing, non-food biomass and argues that food and biofuel could potentially be produced from the same fields.

Water Energy Food Sustainability in the Middle East

Author: Sohail Murad
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319489208
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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This book provides a survey of technologies available to tackle the problems associated with climate change in the energy, water and food security nexus with a special focus on the Middle East. It is divided into three main sections. The energy Section consists of six chapters, the water section of seven chapters and finally the food security section has six chapters. The individual chapters are authored by experts and provide discussions and in-depth views on the current status of each topic.

Renewable Fuel Standard

Author: Committee on Economic and Environmental Impacts of Increasing Biofuels Production
Publisher: National Academies Press
ISBN: 0309187516
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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In the United States, we have come to depend on plentiful and inexpensive energy to support our economy and lifestyles. In recent years, many questions have been raised regarding the sustainability of our current pattern of high consumption of nonrenewable energy and its environmental consequences. Further, because the United States imports about 55 percent of the nation's consumption of crude oil, there are additional concerns about the security of supply. Hence, efforts are being made to find alternatives to our current pathway, including greater energy efficiency and use of energy sources that could lower greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions such as nuclear and renewable sources, including solar, wind, geothermal, and biofuels. The United States has a long history with biofuels and the nation is on a course charted to achieve a substantial increase in biofuels. Renewable Fuel Standard evaluates the economic and environmental consequences of increasing biofuels production as a result of Renewable Fuels Standard, as amended by EISA (RFS2). The report describes biofuels produced in 2010 and those projected to be produced and consumed by 2022, reviews model projections and other estimates of the relative impact on the prices of land, and discusses the potential environmental harm and benefits of biofuels production and the barriers to achieving the RFS2 consumption mandate. Policy makers, investors, leaders in the transportation sector, and others with concerns for the environment, economy, and energy security can rely on the recommendations provided in this report.

Molecular Genetic Approaches to Maize Improvement

Author: Alan L. Kriz
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3540689222
Format: PDF
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During the past decade, there has been tremendous progress in maize biotechnology. This volume provides an overview of our current knowledge of maize molecular genetics, how it is being used to improve the crop, and future possibilities for crop enhancement. Several chapters deal with genetically engineered traits that are currently, or soon will be, in commercial production. Technical approaches for introducing novel genes into the maize genome, the regeneration of plants from transformed cells, and the creation of transgenic lines for field production are covered. Further, the authors describe how molecular genetic techniques are being used to identify genes and characterize their function, and how these procedures are utilized to develop elite maize germplasm. Moreover, molecular biology and physiological studies of corn as a basis for the improvement of its nutritional and food-making properties are included. Finally, the growing use of corn as biomass for energy production is discussed.

Gasoline Diesel and Ethanol Biofuels from Grasses and Plants

Author: Ram B. Gupta
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1139489062
Format: PDF
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The world is currently faced with two significant problems: fossil fuel depletion and environmental degradation, which are continuously being exacerbated due to increasing global energy consumption. As a substitute for petroleum, renewable fuels have been receiving increasing attention due a variety of environmental, economic, and societal benefits. The first-generation biofuels - ethanol from sugar or corn and biodiesel from vegetable oils - are already on the market. The goal of thisbook is to introduce readers to second-generation biofuels obtained from non-food biomass, such as forest residue, agricultural residue, switch grass, corn stover, waste wood, municipal solid wastes, and so on. Various technologies are discussed, including cellulosic ethanol, biomass gasification, synthesis of diesel and gasoline, bio-crude by hydrothermal liquefaction, bio-oil by fast pyrolysis, and the upgradation of biofuel. This book strives to serve as a comprehensive document presenting various technological pathways and environmental and economic issues related to biofuels.

Producing Liquid Fuels from Coal

Author: James T. Bartis
Publisher: Rand Corporation
ISBN: 0833045113
Format: PDF, ePub
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Large U.S. coal reserves and viable technology make promising a domestic industry producing liquid fuels from coal. Weighing benefits, costs, and environmental issues, a productive and robust U.S. strategy is to promote a limited amount of early commercial experience in coal-to-liquids production and to prepare the foundation for managing associated greenhouse-gas emissions, both in a way that reduces uncertainties and builds future capabilities.

Green Aviation

Author: Richard Blockley
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1118866355
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Green Aviation is the first authoritative overview of both engineering and operational measures to mitigate the environmental impact of aviation. It addresses the current status of measures to reduce the environmental impact of air travel. The chapters cover such items as: Engineering and technology-related subjects (aerodynamics, engines, fuels, structures, etc.), Operations (air traffic management and infrastructure) Policy and regulatory aspects regarding atmospheric and noise pollution. With contributions from leading experts, this volume is intended to be a valuable addition, and useful resource, for aerospace manufacturers and suppliers, governmental and industrial aerospace research establishments, airline and aviation industries, university engineering and science departments, and industry analysts, consultants, and researchers.

Halophiles and Hypersaline Environments

Author: Antonio Ventosa
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9783642201981
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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This book presents the latest results in the exploration of halophilic bacteria, archaea, fungi and viruses. Basic and molecular aspects as well as possible biotechnological applications of halophiles are highlighted by leading scientists. Topics include: the family Halomonadaceae; the hypersaline lakes of Inner Mongolia ; Salinibacter ruber - from genomics to microevolution and ecology; the impact of lipidomics on the microbial world of hypersaline environments; molecular mechanisms of adaptation to high salt concentration in the black yeast Hortaea werneckii; viruses in hypersaline environments; initiation and regulation of translation in halophilic Archaea; protein transport into and across haloarchaeal cytoplasmic membranes; protein glycosylation in Haloferax volcanii; the effect of anoxic conditions and temperature on gas vesicle formation in Halobacterium salinarum; halophiles exposed to multiple stressors; cellular adjustments of Bacillus subtilis to fluctuating salinities; the nature and function of carotenoids in Halobacillus halophilus; xanthorhodopsin; enzymatic biomass degradation by halophilic microorganisms; and enzymes from halophilic Archaea.

Bioenergy Research Advances and Applications

Author: Vijai G. Gupta
Publisher: Newnes
ISBN: 0444595643
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Bioenergy Research: Advances and Applications brings biology and engineering together to address the challenges of future energy needs. The book consolidates the most recent research on current technologies, concepts, and commercial developments in various types of widely used biofuels and integrated biorefineries, across the disciplines of biochemistry, biotechnology, phytology, and microbiology. All the chapters in the book are derived from international scientific experts in their respective research areas. They provide you with clear and concise information on both standard and more recent bioenergy production methods, including hydrolysis and microbial fermentation. Chapters are also designed to facilitate early stage researchers, and enables you to easily grasp the concepts, methodologies and application of bioenergy technologies. Each chapter in the book describes the merits and drawbacks of each technology as well as its usefulness. The book provides information on recent approaches to graduates, post-graduates, researchers and practitioners studying and working in field of the bioenergy. It is an invaluable information resource on biomass-based biofuels for fundamental and applied research, catering to researchers in the areas of bio-hydrogen, bioethanol, bio-methane and biorefineries, and the use of microbial processes in the conversion of biomass into biofuels. Reviews all existing and promising technologies for production of advanced biofuels in addition to bioenergy policies and research funding Cutting-edge research concepts for biofuels production using biological and biochemical routes, including microbial fuel cells Includes production methods and conversion processes for all types of biofuels, including bioethanol and biohydrogen, and outlines the pros and cons of each