Functionalized Polysulfones

Author: Silvia Ioan
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1482255553
Format: PDF, Docs
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Functionalized Polysulfones: Synthesis, Characterization, and Applications focuses on polysulfones and their derivatives, which are widely used as functional materials in the biochemical, industrial, and medical fields due to their structural and physical characteristics, such as good optical properties, high thermal and chemical stability, mechanical strength, resistance to extreme pH values, and low creep. Because of their antimicrobial actions, solubility characteristics, water permeability, and separation, the functional groups, which modify the hydrophilicity of polysulfones, are of particular interest for biomedical applications. In addition, the functional groups are an intrinsic requirement for affinity, ion exchange, and other special membranes. In this book, the bioapplications of polysulfones are presented in two categories: blood-contacting devices (e.g., membranes for hemodialysis, hemodiafiltration, and hemofiltration) and cell- or tissue-contacting devices (e.g., bioreactors made by hollow-fiber membrane and nerve generation through polysulfone semipermeable hollow membrane). Surface wettability and hydrophilicity trends, as well as the morphological characteristics of modified polysulfones, are analyzed for semipermeable membrane purposes. Select chapters provide an introduction to chelating units on the modified polysulfone structure to obtain potential applications, such as surface coatings on metals and glasses, adhesives, high-temperature lubricants, electrical insulators, semiconductors, and the reduction of heavy-metal pollution in ecosystems. Featuring recent scientific information, Functionalized Polysulfones: Synthesis, Characterization, and Applications advances the basic knowledge of students and researchers working in the field of polymeric materials, including physicists, chemists, engineers, bioengineers, and biologists.

High Performance Polymers and Engineering Plastics

Author: Vikas Mittal
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1118016696
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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This book describes advances in synthesis, processing, and technology of environmentally friendly polymers generated from renewable resources. With contents based on a wide range of functional monomers and contributions from eminent researchers, this volume demonstrates the design, synthesis, properties and applications of plant oil based polymers, presenting an elaborate review of acid mediated polymerization techniques for the generation of green polymers. Chemical engineers are provided with state-of-the-art information that acts to further progress research in this direction.

Handbook of Thermoplastics Second Edition

Author: Olagoke Olabisi
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1466577231
Format: PDF, ePub
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This new edition of the bestselling Handbook of Thermoplastics incorporates recent developments and advances in thermoplastics with regard to materials development, processing, properties, and applications. With contributions from 65 internationally recognized authorities in the field, the second edition features new and updated discussions of several topics, including: Polymer nanocomposites Laser processing of thermoplastic composites Bioplastics Natural fiber thermoplastic composites Materials selection Design and application Additives for thermoplastics Recycling of thermoplastics Regulatory and legislative issues related to health, safety, and the environment The book also discusses state-of-the-art techniques in science and technology as well as environmental assessment with regard to the impact of thermoplastics. Each chapter is written in a review format that covers: Historical development and commercialization Polymerization and process technologies Structural and phase characteristics in relation to use properties The effects of additives on properties and applications Blends, alloys, copolymers, and composites derived from thermoplastics Applications Giving thorough coverage of the most recent trends in research and practice, the Handbook of Thermoplastics, Second Edition is an indispensable resource for experienced and practicing professionals as well as upper-level undergraduate and graduate students in a wide range of disciplines and industries.

Graphene

Author: Jamie H. Warner
Publisher: Newnes
ISBN: 0123948274
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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Providing fundamental knowledge necessary to understand graphene’s atomic structure, band-structure, unique properties and an overview of groundbreaking current and emergent applications, this new handbook is essential reading for materials scientists, chemists and physicists. Since the 2010 physics Nobel Prize awarded to Geim and Novosolev for their groundbreaking work isolating graphene from bulk graphite, there has been a huge surge in interest in the area. This has led to a large number of news books on graphene. However, for such a vast inflow of new entrants, the current literature is surprisingly slight, focusing exclusively on current research or books on previous "hot topic" allotropes of carbon. This book covers fundamental groundwork of the structure, property, characterization methods and applications of graphene, along with providing the necessary knowledge of graphene’s atomic structure, how it relates to its band-structure and how this in turn leads to the amazing properties of graphene. And so it provides new graduate students and post-docs with a resource that equips them with the knowledge to undertake their research. Discusses graphene’s fundamental structure and properties, acting as a time-saving handbook for validated research Demonstrates 100+ high-quality graphical representations, providing the reader with clear images to convey complex situations Reviews characterization techniques relevant to grapheme, equipping the reader with experimental knowledge relevant for practical use rather than just theoretical understanding

Phosphorus 31 NMR Spectroscopy

Author: Olaf Kühl
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9783540791188
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Nuclear Magnetic Resonance is a powerful tool, especially for the identification of 1 13 hitherto unknown organic compounds. H- and C-NMR spectroscopy is known and applied by virtually every synthetically working Organic Chemist. Con- quently, the factors governing the differences in chemical shift values, based on chemical environment, bonding, temperature, solvent, pH, etc. , are well understood, and specialty methods developed for almost every conceivable structural challenge. Proton and carbon NMR spectroscopy is part of most bachelors degree courses, with advanced methods integrated into masters degree and other graduate courses. In view of this universal knowledge about proton and carbon NMR spectr- copy within the chemical community, it is remarkable that heteronuclear NMR is still looked upon as something of a curiosity. Admittedly, most organic compounds contain only nitrogen, oxygen, and sulfur atoms, as well as the obligatory hydrogen and carbon atoms, elements that have an unfavourable isotope distribution when it comes to NMR spectroscopy. Each of these three elements has a dominant isotope: 14 16 32 16 32 N (99. 63% natural abundance), O (99. 76%), and S (95. 02%), with O, S, and 34 14 S (4. 21%) NMR silent. N has a nuclear moment I = 1 and a sizeable quadrupolar moment that makes the NMR signals usually very broad and dif cult to analyse.

Polyampholytes

Author: Sarkyt E. Kudaibergenov
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1461506271
Format: PDF, Docs
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In order to adapt the properties of living materials to their biological functions, nature has developed unique polyelectrolytes with outstanding physical, chemical and mechanical behavior. Namely polyampholytes can be suitable substances to model protein folding phenomenon and enzymatic activity most of biological macromolecules due to the presence of acidic and basic groups. The ability of linear and crosslinked amphoteric macromolecules to adopt globular, coil, helix and stretched conformations and to demonstrate coil-globule, helix-coil phase transitions, and sol-gel, collapsed expanded volume changes in relation to internal (nature and distribution of acid and base substituents, copolymer composition, hydrophobicity etc. ) and external (pH, temperature, ionic strength of the solution, thermodynamic quality of solvents etc. ) factors is very important and constantly attracts the attention of theorists and experimentalists because the hierarchy of amphoteric macromolecules can repeat, more or less, the structural organization of proteins. That is why polyampholytes fall within eyeshot of several disciplines, at least polymer chemistry and physics, molecular biology, colloid chemistry, coordination chemistry and catalysis. The main purpose of this monograph is to bridge the gap between synthetic and natural polymers and to show a closer relationship between two fascinating worlds. The first chapter of the book acquaints the readers with synthetic strategy of "annealed", "quenched" and "zwitterionic" polyampholytes. Radical copolymerization, chemical modification and radiation-chemical polymerization methods are thoroughly considered. Kinetics and mechanism of formation of random, alternating, graft, di-block or tri-block sequences is discussed. The second chapter deals with behavior of polyampholytes in solutions.

Biomimetic Polymers

Author: C.G. Gebelein
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1461306574
Format: PDF
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The term biomimetic is comparatively new on the chemical scene, but the concept has been utilized by chemists for many years. Furthermore, the basic idea of making a synthetic material that can imitate the func tions of natural materials probably could be traced back into antiquity. From the dawn of creation, people have probably attempted to duplicate or modify the activities of the natural world. (One can even find allusions to these attempts in the Bible; e. g. , Genesis 30. ) The term "mimetic" means to imitate or mimic. The word "mimic" means to copy closely, or to imitate accurately. Biomimetic, which has not yet entered most dictionaries, means to imitate or mimic some specific bio logical function. Usually, the objective of biomimetics is to form some useful material without the need of utilizing living systems. In a simi lar manner, the term biomimetic polymers means creating synthetic poly mers which imitate the activity of natural bioactive polymers. This is a major advance in polymer chemistry because the natural bioactive polymers are the basis of life itself. Thus, biomimetic polymers imitate the life process in many ways. This present volume delineates some of the recent progress being made in this vast field of biomimetic polymers. Chemists have been making biomimetic polymers for more than fifty years, although this term wasn't used in the early investigations.

Photonics

Author: Ralf Menzel
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3662045214
Format: PDF, ePub
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Deals with the fundamental properties of photon and light beams, both experimentally and theoretically. It covers the essentials of linear interactions and most of the nonlinear interactions between light and matter in both the transparent and absorbing cases. About 4000 references open access to original literature.