Radiation Physics for Medical Physicists

Author: Ervin B. Podgorsak
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319253824
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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This textbook summarizes the basic knowledge of atomic, nuclear, and radiation physics that professionals working in medical physics and biomedical engineering need for efficient and safe use of ionizing radiation in medicine. Concentrating on the underlying principles of radiation physics, the textbook covers the prerequisite knowledge for medical physics courses on the graduate and post-graduate levels in radiotherapy physics, radiation dosimetry, imaging physics, and health physics, thus providing the link between elementary undergraduate physics and the intricacies of four medical physics specialties: diagnostic radiology physics, nuclear medicine physics, radiation oncology physics, and health physics. To recognize the importance of radiation dosimetry to medical physics three new chapters have been added to the 14 chapters of the previous edition. Chapter 15 provides a general introduction to radiation dosimetry. Chapter 16 deals with absolute radiation dosimetry systems that establish absorbed dose or some other dose related quantity directly from the signal measured by the dosimeter. Three absolute dosimetry techniques are known and described in detail: (i) calorimetric; (ii) chemical (Fricke), and (iii) ionometric. Chapter 17 deals with relative radiation dosimetry systems that rely on a previous dosimeter calibration in a known radiation field. Many relative radiation dosimetry systems have been developed to date and four most important categories used routinely in medicine and radiation protection are described in this chapter: (i) Ionometric dosimetry; (ii) Luminescence dosimetry; (iii) Semiconductor dosimetry; and (iv) Film dosimetry. The book is intended as a textbook for a radiation physics course in academic medical physics graduate programs as well as a reference book for candidates preparing for certification examinations in medical physics sub-specialties. It may also be of interest to many professionals, not only physicists, who in their daily occupations deal with various aspects of medical physics or radiation physics and have a need or desire to improve their understanding of radiation physics.

Linear Accelerators for Radiation Therapy Second Edition

Author: David Greene
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9780750304764
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Linear Accelerators for Radiation Therapy, Second Edition focuses on the fundamentals of accelerator systems, explaining the underlying physics and the different features of these systems. This edition includes expanded sections on the treatment head, on x-ray production via multileaf and dynamic collimation for the production of wedged and other intensity modulated beams, on electron scattering systems, and on dosimetry. With high-quality illustrations and practical examples throughout, it contains a detailed description of electron beam optics and linear accelerator components. The final chapter explains how to use other equipment, such as scanners and simulators, in conjunction with linear accelerators for optimum treatment of cancers.

Proton Therapy Physics

Author: Harald Paganetti
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1439836450
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Proton Therapy Physics goes beyond current books on proton therapy to provide an in-depth overview of the physics aspects of this radiation therapy modality, eliminating the need to dig through information scattered in the medical physics literature. After tracing the history of proton therapy, the book summarizes the atomic and nuclear physics background necessary for understanding proton interactions with tissue. It describes the physics of proton accelerators, the parameters of clinical proton beams, and the mechanisms to generate a conformal dose distribution in a patient. The text then covers detector systems and measuring techniques for reference dosimetry, outlines basic quality assurance and commissioning guidelines, and gives examples of Monte Carlo simulations in proton therapy. The book moves on to discussions of treatment planning for single- and multiple-field uniform doses, dose calculation concepts and algorithms, and precision and uncertainties for nonmoving and moving targets. It also examines computerized treatment plan optimization, methods for in vivo dose or beam range verification, the safety of patients and operating personnel, and the biological implications of using protons from a physics perspective. The final chapter illustrates the use of risk models for common tissue complications in treatment optimization. Along with exploring quality assurance issues and biological considerations, this practical guide collects the latest clinical studies on the use of protons in treatment planning and radiation monitoring. Suitable for both newcomers in medical physics and more seasoned specialists in radiation oncology, the book helps readers understand the uncertainties and limitations of precisely shaped dose distribution.

Fundamentals of Nuclear Medicine Dosimetry

Author: Michael G. Stabin
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9780387745794
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Written by a leading international authority in the field, this book is ideal for physicians and residents in nuclear medicine who want to improve their knowledge in internal dosimetry. The text is a practical introduction that guides the reader through fundamental concepts in the calculation of radiation dose, including discussions of standardized models, methods of calculations, and available software applications. This comprehensive guide discusses too the biological effects of radiation on living systems. The book also includes an overview of regulatory aspects related to the radiation dosimetry of new radiopharmaceuticals.

Radiation Protection in Medical Imaging and Radiation Oncology

Author: Richard J. Vetter
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1482245388
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Radiation Protection in Medical Imaging and Radiation Oncology focuses on the professional, operational, and regulatory aspects of radiation protection. Advances in radiation medicine have resulted in new modalities and procedures, some of which have significant potential to cause serious harm. Examples include radiologic procedures that require very long fluoroscopy times, radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies, and intravascular brachytherapy. This book summarizes evidence supporting changes in consensus recommendations, regulations, and health physics practices associated with these recent advances in radiology, nuclear medicine, and radiation oncology. It supports intelligent and practical methods for protection of personnel, the public, and patients. The book is based on current recommendations by the International Commission on Radiological Protection and is complemented by detailed practical sections and professional discussions by the world’s leading medical and health physics professionals. It also includes substantial information on international aspects of radiation protection, with sections covering Africa, Asia and Oceania, the European Union, the Middle East, and North and Latin America.

Handbook of Anatomical Models for Radiation Dosimetry

Author: Xie George Xu
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9781420059809
Format: PDF, Docs
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Over the past few decades, the radiological science community has developed and applied numerous models of the human body for radiation protection, diagnostic imaging, and nuclear medicine therapy. The Handbook of Anatomical Models for Radiation Dosimetry provides a comprehensive review of the development and application of these computational models, known as "phantoms." An ambitious and unparalleled project, this pioneering work is the result of several years of planning and preparation involving 64 authors from across the world. It brings together recommendations and information sanctioned by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and documents 40 years of history and the progress of those involved with cutting-edge work with Monte Carlo Codes and radiation protection dosimetry. This volume was in part spurred on by the ICRP’s key decision to adopt voxelized computational phantoms as standards for radiation protection purposes. It is an invaluable reference for those working in that area as well as those employing or developing anatomical models for a a number of clinical applications. Assembling the work of nearly all major phantom developers around the world, this volume examines: The history of the research and development in computational phantoms Detailed accounts for each of the well-known phantoms, including the MIRD-5, GSF Voxel Family Phantoms, NCAT, UF Hybrid Pediatric Phantoms, VIP-Man, and the latest ICRP Reference Phantoms Physical phantoms for experimental radiation dosimetry The smallest voxel size (0.2 mm), phantoms developed from the Chinese Visible Human Project Applications for radiation protection dosimetry involving environmental, nuclear power plant, and internal contamination exposures Medical applications, including nuclear medicine therapy, CT examinations, x-ray radiological image optimization, nuclear medicine imaging, external photon and proton treatments, and management of respiration in modern image-guided radiation treatment Patient-specific phantoms used for radiation treatment planning involving two Monte Carlo code systems: GEANT4 and EGS Future needs for research and development Related data sets are available for download on the authors’ website. The breadth and depth of this work enables readers to obtain a unique sense of the complete scientific process in computational phantom development, from the conception of an idea, to the identification of original anatomical data, to solutions of various computing problems, and finally, to the ownership and sharing of results in this groundbreaking field that holds so much promise.

Handbook of X ray Imaging

Author: Paolo Russo
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1498741541
Format: PDF, Docs
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Containing chapter contributions from over 130 experts, this unique publication is the first handbook dedicated to the physics and technology of X-ray imaging, offering extensive coverage of the field. This highly comprehensive work is edited by one of the world’s leading experts in X-ray imaging?physics and technology and has been created with guidance from a Scientific Board containing respected and renowned scientists from around the world. The book's scope includes 2D and 3D X-ray imaging techniques from soft-X-ray to megavoltage energies, including computed tomography, fluoroscopy, dental imaging and small animal imaging, with several chapters dedicated to breast imaging techniques. 2D and 3D industrial imaging is incorporated, including imaging of artworks. Specific attention is dedicated to techniques of phase contrast X-ray imaging. The approach undertaken is one that illustrates the theory as well as the techniques and the devices routinely used in the various fields. Computational aspects are fully covered, including 3D reconstruction algorithms, hard/software phantoms, and computer-aided diagnosis. Theories of image quality are fully illustrated. Historical, radioprotection, radiation dosimetry, quality assurance and educational aspects are also covered. This handbook will be suitable for a very broad audience, including graduate students in medical physics and biomedical engineering; medical physics residents; radiographers; physicists and engineers in the field of imaging and non-destructive industrial testing using X-rays; and scientists interested in understanding and using X-ray imaging techniques. The handbook's editor, Dr. Paolo Russo, has over 30 years’ experience in the academic teaching of medical physics and X-ray imaging research. He has authored several book chapters in the field of X-ray imaging, is Editor-in-Chief of an international scientific journal in medical physics, and has responsibilities in the publication committees of international scientific organizations in medical physics.

Applied Physics of External Radiation Exposure

Author: Rodolphe Antoni
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319486608
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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This book describes the interaction of living matter with photons, neutrons, charged particles, electrons and ions. The authors are specialists in the field of radiation protection. The book synthesizes many years of experiments with external radiation exposure in the fields of dosimetry and radiation shielding in medical, industrial and research fields. It presents the basic physical concepts including dosimetry and offers a number of tools to be used by students, engineers and technicians to assess the radiological risk and the means to avoid them by calculating the appropriate shields. The theory of radiation interaction in matter is presented together with empirical formulas and abacus. Numerous numerical applications are treated to illustrate the different topics. The state of the art in radiation protection and dosimetry is presented in detail, especially in the field of simulation codes for external exposure to radiation, medical projects and advanced research. Moreover, important data spread in different up to date references are presented in this book. The book deals also with accelerators, X-rays facilities, sealed sources, dosimetry, Monte Carlo simulation and radiation regulation. Each chapter is split in two parts depending on the level of details the readers want to focus on. The first part, accessible to a large public, provides a lot of simple examples to help understanding the physics concepts under radiation external exposure. The second part, called “Additional Information” is not mandatory; it aims on explaining topics more deeply, often using mathematical formulations. The book treats fundamental radiometric and dosimetric quantities to describe the interaction in materials under the aspects of absorbed dose processes in tissues. Definitions and applications on limited and operational radiation protection quantities are given. An important aspect are practical engineering tools in industrial, medical and research domains. Source characterization and shielding design are addressed. Also more ”exotic” topics, such as ultra intense laser and new generation accelerators, are treated. The state of the art is presented to help the reader to work with the book in a self-consistent way. The basic knowledge necessary to apply Monte Carlo methods in the field of radiation protection and dosimetry for external radiation exposure is provided. Coverage of topics such as variance reduction, pseudo-random number generation and statistic estimators make the book useful even to experienced Monte Carlo practitioners. Solved problems help the reader to understand the Monte Carlo process. The book is meant to be used by researchers, engineers and medical physicist. It is also valuable to technicians and students.

Monte Carlo Methods for Radiation Transport

Author: Oleg N. Vassiliev
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319441418
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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This book is a guide to the use of Monte Carlo techniques in radiation transport. This topic is of great interest for medical physicists. Praised as a "gold standard" for accurate radiotherapy dose calculations, Monte Carlo has stimulated a high level of research activity that has produced thousands of papers within the past few years. The book is designed primarily to address the needs of an academically inclined medical physicist who wishes to learn the technique, as well as experienced users of standard Monte Carlo codes who wish to gain insight into the underlying mathematics of Monte Carlo algorithms. The book focuses on the fundamentals—giving full attention to and explaining the very basic concepts. It also includes advanced topics and covers recent advances such as transport of charged particles in magnetic fields and the grid-based solvers of the Boltzmann equation.