Radiation Physics for Medical Physicists

Author: Ervin B. Podgorsak
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319253824
Format: PDF
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This textbook summarizes the basic knowledge of atomic, nuclear, and radiation physics that professionals working in medical physics and biomedical engineering need for efficient and safe use of ionizing radiation in medicine. Concentrating on the underlying principles of radiation physics, the textbook covers the prerequisite knowledge for medical physics courses on the graduate and post-graduate levels in radiotherapy physics, radiation dosimetry, imaging physics, and health physics, thus providing the link between elementary undergraduate physics and the intricacies of four medical physics specialties: diagnostic radiology physics, nuclear medicine physics, radiation oncology physics, and health physics. To recognize the importance of radiation dosimetry to medical physics three new chapters have been added to the 14 chapters of the previous edition. Chapter 15 provides a general introduction to radiation dosimetry. Chapter 16 deals with absolute radiation dosimetry systems that establish absorbed dose or some other dose related quantity directly from the signal measured by the dosimeter. Three absolute dosimetry techniques are known and described in detail: (i) calorimetric; (ii) chemical (Fricke), and (iii) ionometric. Chapter 17 deals with relative radiation dosimetry systems that rely on a previous dosimeter calibration in a known radiation field. Many relative radiation dosimetry systems have been developed to date and four most important categories used routinely in medicine and radiation protection are described in this chapter: (i) Ionometric dosimetry; (ii) Luminescence dosimetry; (iii) Semiconductor dosimetry; and (iv) Film dosimetry. The book is intended as a textbook for a radiation physics course in academic medical physics graduate programs as well as a reference book for candidates preparing for certification examinations in medical physics sub-specialties. It may also be of interest to many professionals, not only physicists, who in their daily occupations deal with various aspects of medical physics or radiation physics and have a need or desire to improve their understanding of radiation physics.

Proton Therapy Physics

Author: Harald Paganetti
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1439836450
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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Proton Therapy Physics goes beyond current books on proton therapy to provide an in-depth overview of the physics aspects of this radiation therapy modality, eliminating the need to dig through information scattered in the medical physics literature. After tracing the history of proton therapy, the book summarizes the atomic and nuclear physics background necessary for understanding proton interactions with tissue. It describes the physics of proton accelerators, the parameters of clinical proton beams, and the mechanisms to generate a conformal dose distribution in a patient. The text then covers detector systems and measuring techniques for reference dosimetry, outlines basic quality assurance and commissioning guidelines, and gives examples of Monte Carlo simulations in proton therapy. The book moves on to discussions of treatment planning for single- and multiple-field uniform doses, dose calculation concepts and algorithms, and precision and uncertainties for nonmoving and moving targets. It also examines computerized treatment plan optimization, methods for in vivo dose or beam range verification, the safety of patients and operating personnel, and the biological implications of using protons from a physics perspective. The final chapter illustrates the use of risk models for common tissue complications in treatment optimization. Along with exploring quality assurance issues and biological considerations, this practical guide collects the latest clinical studies on the use of protons in treatment planning and radiation monitoring. Suitable for both newcomers in medical physics and more seasoned specialists in radiation oncology, the book helps readers understand the uncertainties and limitations of precisely shaped dose distribution.

Linear Accelerators for Radiation Therapy Second Edition

Author: David Greene
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9780750304764
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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Linear Accelerators for Radiation Therapy, Second Edition focuses on the fundamentals of accelerator systems, explaining the underlying physics and the different features of these systems. This edition includes expanded sections on the treatment head, on x-ray production via multileaf and dynamic collimation for the production of wedged and other intensity modulated beams, on electron scattering systems, and on dosimetry. With high-quality illustrations and practical examples throughout, it contains a detailed description of electron beam optics and linear accelerator components. The final chapter explains how to use other equipment, such as scanners and simulators, in conjunction with linear accelerators for optimum treatment of cancers.

Fundamentals of Nuclear Medicine Dosimetry

Author: Michael G. Stabin
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9780387745794
Format: PDF, Docs
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Written by a leading international authority in the field, this book is ideal for physicians and residents in nuclear medicine who want to improve their knowledge in internal dosimetry. The text is a practical introduction that guides the reader through fundamental concepts in the calculation of radiation dose, including discussions of standardized models, methods of calculations, and available software applications. This comprehensive guide discusses too the biological effects of radiation on living systems. The book also includes an overview of regulatory aspects related to the radiation dosimetry of new radiopharmaceuticals.

Applied Physics of External Radiation Exposure

Author: Rodolphe Antoni
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319486608
Format: PDF, ePub
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This book describes the interaction of living matter with photons, neutrons, charged particles, electrons and ions. The authors are specialists in the field of radiation protection. The book synthesizes many years of experiments with external radiation exposure in the fields of dosimetry and radiation shielding in medical, industrial and research fields. It presents the basic physical concepts including dosimetry and offers a number of tools to be used by students, engineers and technicians to assess the radiological risk and the means to avoid them by calculating the appropriate shields. The theory of radiation interaction in matter is presented together with empirical formulas and abacus. Numerous numerical applications are treated to illustrate the different topics. The state of the art in radiation protection and dosimetry is presented in detail, especially in the field of simulation codes for external exposure to radiation, medical projects and advanced research. Moreover, important data spread in different up to date references are presented in this book. The book deals also with accelerators, X-rays facilities, sealed sources, dosimetry, Monte Carlo simulation and radiation regulation. Each chapter is split in two parts depending on the level of details the readers want to focus on. The first part, accessible to a large public, provides a lot of simple examples to help understanding the physics concepts under radiation external exposure. The second part, called “Additional Information” is not mandatory; it aims on explaining topics more deeply, often using mathematical formulations. The book treats fundamental radiometric and dosimetric quantities to describe the interaction in materials under the aspects of absorbed dose processes in tissues. Definitions and applications on limited and operational radiation protection quantities are given. An important aspect are practical engineering tools in industrial, medical and research domains. Source characterization and shielding design are addressed. Also more ”exotic” topics, such as ultra intense laser and new generation accelerators, are treated. The state of the art is presented to help the reader to work with the book in a self-consistent way. The basic knowledge necessary to apply Monte Carlo methods in the field of radiation protection and dosimetry for external radiation exposure is provided. Coverage of topics such as variance reduction, pseudo-random number generation and statistic estimators make the book useful even to experienced Monte Carlo practitioners. Solved problems help the reader to understand the Monte Carlo process. The book is meant to be used by researchers, engineers and medical physicist. It is also valuable to technicians and students.

Radiation Protection in Medical Imaging and Radiation Oncology

Author: Richard J. Vetter
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1482245388
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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Radiation Protection in Medical Imaging and Radiation Oncology focuses on the professional, operational, and regulatory aspects of radiation protection. Advances in radiation medicine have resulted in new modalities and procedures, some of which have significant potential to cause serious harm. Examples include radiologic procedures that require very long fluoroscopy times, radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies, and intravascular brachytherapy. This book summarizes evidence supporting changes in consensus recommendations, regulations, and health physics practices associated with these recent advances in radiology, nuclear medicine, and radiation oncology. It supports intelligent and practical methods for protection of personnel, the public, and patients. The book is based on current recommendations by the International Commission on Radiological Protection and is complemented by detailed practical sections and professional discussions by the world’s leading medical and health physics professionals. It also includes substantial information on international aspects of radiation protection, with sections covering Africa, Asia and Oceania, the European Union, the Middle East, and North and Latin America.

Physics in Nuclear Medicine E Book

Author: Simon R. Cherry
Publisher: Elsevier Health Sciences
ISBN: 1455733679
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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Physics in Nuclear Medicine - by Drs. Simon R. Cherry, James A. Sorenson, and Michael E. Phelps - provides current, comprehensive guidance on the physics underlying modern nuclear medicine and imaging using radioactively labeled tracers. This revised and updated fourth edition features a new full-color layout, as well as the latest information on instrumentation and technology. Stay current on crucial developments in hybrid imaging (PET/CT and SPECT/CT), and small animal imaging, and benefit from the new section on tracer kinetic modeling in neuroreceptor imaging. What’s more, you can reinforce your understanding with graphical animations online at www.expertconsult.com, along with the fully searchable text and calculation tools. Master the physics of nuclear medicine with thorough explanations of analytic equations and illustrative graphs to make them accessible. Discover the technologies used in state-of-the-art nuclear medicine imaging systems Fully grasp the process of emission computed tomography with advanced mathematical concepts presented in the appendices. Utilize the extensive data in the day-to-day practice of nuclear medicine practice and research. Tap into the expertise of Dr. Simon Cherry, who contributes his cutting-edge knowledge in nuclear medicine instrumentation. Stay current on the latest developments in nuclear medicine technology and methods New sections to learn about hybrid imaging (PET/CT and SPECT/CT) and small animal imaging. View graphical animations online at www.expertconsult.com, where you can also access the fully searchable text and calculation tools. Get a better view of images and line art and find information more easily thanks to a brand-new, full-color layout. The perfect reference or textbook to comprehensively review physics principles in nuclear medicine.

Monte Carlo Methods for Radiation Transport

Author: Oleg N. Vassiliev
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319441418
Format: PDF, Kindle
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This book is a guide to the use of Monte Carlo techniques in radiation transport. This topic is of great interest for medical physicists. Praised as a "gold standard" for accurate radiotherapy dose calculations, Monte Carlo has stimulated a high level of research activity that has produced thousands of papers within the past few years. The book is designed primarily to address the needs of an academically inclined medical physicist who wishes to learn the technique, as well as experienced users of standard Monte Carlo codes who wish to gain insight into the underlying mathematics of Monte Carlo algorithms. The book focuses on the fundamentals—giving full attention to and explaining the very basic concepts. It also includes advanced topics and covers recent advances such as transport of charged particles in magnetic fields and the grid-based solvers of the Boltzmann equation.

Fundamentals of Ionizing Radiation Dosimetry

Author: Pedro Andreo
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 3527808248
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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A new, comprehensively updated edition of the acclaimed textbook by F.H. Attix (Introduction to Radiological Physics and Radiation Dosimetry) taking into account the substantial developments in dosimetry since its first edition. This monograph covers charged and uncharged particle interactions at a level consistent with the advanced use of the Monte Carlo method in dosimetry; radiation quantities, macroscopic behaviour and the characterization of radiation fields and beams are covered in detail. A number of chapters include addenda presenting derivations and discussions that offer new insight into established dosimetric principles and concepts. The theoretical aspects of dosimetry are given in the comprehensive chapter on cavity theory, followed by the description of primary measurement standards, ionization chambers, chemical dosimeters and solid state detectors. Chapters on applications include reference dosimetry for standard and small fields in radiotherapy, diagnostic radiology and interventional procedures, dosimetry of unsealed and sealed radionuclide sources, and neutron beam dosimetry. The topics are presented in a logical, easy-to-follow sequence and the text is supplemented by numerous illustrative diagrams, tables and appendices. For senior undergraduate- or graduate-level students and professionals.