Funds of Identity

Author: Moisès Esteban-Guitart
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1107147115
Format: PDF
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This book provides an invaluable resource for researchers who wish to improve education by bridging students, school, family, and community resources. Based in connecting experiences in and out of school, it suggests a strategy to put students' practices, cultures, and identities in the center of a twenty-first-century education.

Communities of Practice

Author: Etienne Wenger
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1107268370
Format: PDF, Kindle
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This book presents a theory of learning that starts with the assumption that engagement in social practice is the fundamental process by which we get to know what we know and by which we become who we are. The primary unit of analysis of this process is neither the individual nor social institutions, but the informal 'communities of practice' that people form as they pursue shared enterprises over time. To give a social account of learning, the theory explores in a systematic way the intersection of issues of community, social practice, meaning, and identity. The result is a broad framework for thinking about learning as a process of social participation. This ambitious but thoroughly accessible framework has relevance for the practitioner as well as the theoretician, presented with all the breadth, depth, and rigor necessary to address such a complex and yet profoundly human topic.

Street Mathematics and School Mathematics

Author: Terezinha Nunes
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9780521388139
Format: PDF, Mobi
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People who learn to solve problems 'on the job' often have to do it differently from people who learn in theory. Practical knowledge and theoretical knowledge is different in some ways but similar in other ways - or else one would end up with wrong solutions to the problems. Mathematics is also like this. People who learn to calculate, for example, because they are involved in commerce frequently have a more practical way of doing mathematics than the way we are taught at school. This book is about the differences between what we call practical knowledge of mathematics - that is street mathematics - and mathematics learned in school, which is not learned in practice. The authors look at the differences between these two ways of solving mathematical problems and discuss their advantages and disadvantages. They also discuss ways of trying to put theory and practice together in mathematics teaching.

STEM Integration in K 12 Education

Author: National Research Council
Publisher: National Academies Press
ISBN: 0309297990
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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STEM Integration in K-12 Education examines current efforts to connect the STEM disciplines in K-12 education. This report identifies and characterizes existing approaches to integrated STEM education, both in formal and after- and out-of-school settings. The report reviews the evidence for the impact of integrated approaches on various student outcomes, and it proposes a set of priority research questions to advance the understanding of integrated STEM education. STEM Integration in K-12 Education proposes a framework to provide a common perspective and vocabulary for researchers, practitioners, and others to identify, discuss, and investigate specific integrated STEM initiatives within the K-12 education system of the United States. STEM Integration in K-12 Education makes recommendations for designers of integrated STEM experiences, assessment developers, and researchers to design and document effective integrated STEM education. This report will help to further their work and improve the chances that some forms of integrated STEM education will make a positive difference in student learning and interest and other valued outcomes.

Machine Learning for the Web

Author: Andrea Isoni
Publisher: Packt Publishing Ltd
ISBN: 1785888722
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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Explore the web and make smarter predictions using Python About This Book Targets two big and prominent markets where sophisticated web apps are of need and importance. Practical examples of building machine learning web application, which are easy to follow and replicate. A comprehensive tutorial on Python libraries and frameworks to get you up and started. Who This Book Is For The book is aimed at upcoming and new data scientists who have little experience with machine learning or users who are interested in and are working on developing smart (predictive) web applications. Knowledge of Django would be beneficial. The reader is expected to have a background in Python programming and good knowledge of statistics. What You Will Learn Get familiar with the fundamental concepts and some of the jargons used in the machine learning community Use tools and techniques to mine data from websites Grasp the core concepts of Django framework Get to know the most useful clustering and classification techniques and implement them in Python Acquire all the necessary knowledge to build a web application with Django Successfully build and deploy a movie recommendation system application using the Django framework in Python In Detail Python is a general purpose and also a comparatively easy to learn programming language. Hence it is the language of choice for data scientists to prototype, visualize, and run data analyses on small and medium-sized data sets. This is a unique book that helps bridge the gap between machine learning and web development. It focuses on the difficulties of implementing predictive analytics in web applications. We focus on the Python language, frameworks, tools, and libraries, showing you how to build a machine learning system. You will explore the core machine learning concepts and then develop and deploy the data into a web application using the Django framework. You will also learn to carry out web, document, and server mining tasks, and build recommendation engines. Later, you will explore Python's impressive Django framework and will find out how to build a modern simple web app with machine learning features. Style and approach Instead of being overwhelmed with multiple concepts at once, this book provides a step-by-step approach that will guide you through one topic at a time. An intuitive step-by step guide that will focus on one key topic at a time. Building upon the acquired knowledge in each chapter, we will connect the fundamental theory and practical tips by illustrative visualizations and hands-on code examples.

Adding It Up

Author: National Research Council
Publisher: National Academies Press
ISBN: 9780309132848
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Adding It Up explores how students in pre-K through 8th grade learn mathematics and recommends how teaching, curricula, and teacher education should change to improve mathematics learning during these critical years. The committee identifies five interdependent components of mathematical proficiency and describes how students develop this proficiency. With examples and illustrations, the book presents a portrait of mathematics learning: Research findings on what children know about numbers by the time they arrive in pre-K and the implications for mathematics instruction. Details on the processes by which students acquire mathematical proficiency with whole numbers, rational numbers, and integers, as well as beginning algebra, geometry, measurement, and probability and statistics. The committee discusses what is known from research about teaching for mathematics proficiency, focusing on the interactions between teachers and students around educational materials and how teachers develop proficiency in teaching mathematics.

The Silent Experiences of Young Bilingual Learners

Author: Caroline Bligh
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9462097976
Format: PDF, Docs
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Many teachers are increasingly concerned with how to best support the learning of the rising numbers of bilingual learners in schools – particularly those children who are new to English and therefore cannot yet communicate with the teacher or their peers in their first language – during the silent period. This book offers an alternative insight to that which is most commonly available to teachers and researchers, as instead of examining language acquisition purely from a linguistic approach; it explores the learning that is occurring through a sociocultural lens and even more significantly, from the young child’s perspective – the worm’s eye view. Investigated through the experiences of young bilingual learners allows the reader to make sense of the making meaning that occurs when the child cannot make sense of his/her new ‘world’; nor communicate verbally in the language of instruction in the classroom. Remarkably, learning through the silent period is revealed as both complex and ‘messy’ as the bilingual child mediates his or her own learning through a synthesis of alternative learning pathways. The silent period is presented as a crucial time for learning; distributed through a synthesis of close observation, intense listening and most significantly copying the practices of others. Throughout the silent period the children are not only seen to be learning but also contributing to the classroom practices. The book not only initiates new understandings of second language learning, but also offers creative ideas on how to raise the achievement of children who are learning English as an additional language.

Vygotsky s Educational Theory in Cultural Context

Author: Alex Kozulin
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1139440411
Format: PDF
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This 2003 book comprehensively covers all major topics of Vygotskian educational theory and its classroom applications. Particular attention is paid to the Vygotskian idea of child development as a consequence rather than premise of learning experiences. Such a reversal allows for new interpretations of the relationships between cognitive development and education at different junctions of the human life span. It also opens new perspectives on atypical development, learning disabilities, and assessment of children's learning potential. Classroom applications of Vygotskian theory are discussed in the book. Teacher training and the changing role of a teacher in a sociocultural classroom is discussed in addition to the issues of teaching and learning activities and peer interactions. Relevant research findings from the US, Western Europe, and Russia are brought together to clarify the possible new applications of Vygotskian ideas in different disciplinary areas.

How People Learn

Author: National Research Council
Publisher: National Academies Press
ISBN: 0309131979
Format: PDF, Docs
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First released in the Spring of 1999, How People Learn has been expanded to show how the theories and insights from the original book can translate into actions and practice, now making a real connection between classroom activities and learning behavior. This edition includes far-reaching suggestions for research that could increase the impact that classroom teaching has on actual learning. Like the original edition, this book offers exciting new research about the mind and the brain that provides answers to a number of compelling questions. When do infants begin to learn? How do experts learn and how is this different from non-experts? What can teachers and schools do-with curricula, classroom settings, and teaching methods--to help children learn most effectively? New evidence from many branches of science has significantly added to our understanding of what it means to know, from the neural processes that occur during learning to the influence of culture on what people see and absorb. How People Learn examines these findings and their implications for what we teach, how we teach it, and how we assess what our children learn. The book uses exemplary teaching to illustrate how approaches based on what we now know result in in-depth learning. This new knowledge calls into question concepts and practices firmly entrenched in our current education system. Topics include: How learning actually changes the physical structure of the brain. How existing knowledge affects what people notice and how they learn. What the thought processes of experts tell us about how to teach. The amazing learning potential of infants. The relationship of classroom learning and everyday settings of community and workplace. Learning needs and opportunities for teachers. A realistic look at the role of technology in education.

Funds of Knowledge

Author: Norma Gonzalez
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1135614059
Format: PDF, ePub
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The concept of "funds of knowledge" is based on a simple premise: people are competent and have knowledge, and their life experiences have given them that knowledge. The claim in this book is that first-hand research experiences with families allow one to document this competence and knowledge, and that such engagement provides many possibilities for positive pedagogical actions. Drawing from both Vygotskian and neo-sociocultural perspectives in designing a methodology that views the everyday practices of language and action as constructing knowledge, the funds of knowledge approach facilitates a systematic and powerful way to represent communities in terms of the resources they possess and how to harness them for classroom teaching. This book accomplishes three objectives: It gives readers the basic methodology and techniques followed in the contributors' funds of knowledge research; it extends the boundaries of what these researchers have done; and it explores the applications to classroom practice that can result from teachers knowing the communities in which they work. In a time when national educational discourses focus on system reform and wholesale replicability across school sites, this book offers a counter-perspective stating that instruction must be linked to students' lives, and that details of effective pedagogy should be linked to local histories and community contexts. This approach should not be confused with parent participation programs, although that is often a fortuitous consequence of the work described. It is also not an attempt to teach parents "how to do school" although that could certainly be an outcome if the parents so desired. Instead, the funds of knowledge approach attempts to accomplish something that may be even more challenging: to alter the perceptions of working-class or poor communities by viewing their households primarily in terms of their strengths and resources, their defining pedagogical characteristics. Funds of Knowledge: Theorizing Practices in Households, Communities, and Classrooms is a critically important volume for all teachers and teachers-to-be, and for researchers and graduate students of language, culture, and education.