Gas Hydrates

Author: Carlo Giavarini
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9780857299567
Format: PDF, Docs
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Gas hydrates are both a huge energy resource and an environmental challenge. They have a significant impact on society because of their applications to the future of energy, protection of the environment and fuel transportation. Gas Hydrates opens up this fascinating, multidisciplinary field to non-specialists. It provides a scientific study of gas hydrates that considers their potential as an energy source while assessing the possible risk to the environment. The authors also examine the feasibility of using these natural compounds for storing and transporting gases such as methane and carbon dioxide. Diagrams and photos are used throughout Gas Hydrates to help readers understand the scientific and technical content. Each section has been designed so it can be read independently by academics and professionals in the oil and gas industry, as well as by all those with an interest in how hydrates combine to be an energy resource, an industrial challange and a geological hazard.

Natural Gas Hydrate Arctic Ocean Deepwater Resource Potential

Author: Michael D. Max
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3319025082
Format: PDF
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The book is an up-to-date basic reference for natural gas hydrate (NGH) in the Arctic Ocean. Geographical, geological, environmental, energy, new technology, and regulatory matters are discussed. The book should be of interest to general readers and scientists and students as well as industry and government agencies concerned with energy and ocean management. NGH is a solid crystalline material that compresses gas by about a factor of about 164 during crystallization from natural gas (mainly methane) - rich pore waters over time. NGH displaces water and may form large concentrations in sediment pore space. Its formation introduces changes in the geotechnical character of host sediment that allows it to be distinguished by seismic and electric exploration methods. The chemical reaction that forms NGH from gas and water molecules is highly reversible, which allows controlled conversion of the NGH to its constituent gas and water. This can be achieved rapidly by one of a number of processes including heating, depressurization, inhibitor injection, dissolution, and molecular replacement. The produced gas has the potential to make NGH a valuable unconventional natural gas resource, and perhaps the largest on earth. Estimates for NGH distribution, concentration, economic targets, and volumes in the Arctic Ocean have been carried out by restricting the economic target to deepwater turbidite sands, which are also sediment hosts for more deeply buried conventional hydrocarbon deposits. Resource base estimates are based on NGH petroleum system analysis approach using industry-standard parameters along with analogs from three relatively well known examples (Nankai-Japan, Gulf of Mexico-United States, and Arctic permafrost hydrate). Drilling data has substantiated new geotechnical-level seismic analysis techniques for estimating not just the presence of NGH but prospect volumes. In addition to a volumetric estimate for NGH having economic potential, a sedimentary depositional model is proposed to aid exploration in the five different regions around the deep central Arctic Ocean basin. Related topics are also discussed. Transport and logistics for NGH may also be applicable for stranded conventional gas and oil deposits. Arising from a discussion of new technology and methodologies that could be applied to developing NGH, suggestions are made for the lowering of exploration and capital expenses that could make NGH competitive on a produced cost basis. The basis for the extraordinarily low environmental risk for exploration and production of NGH is discussed, especially with respect to the environmentally fragile Arctic region. It is suggested that because of the low environmental risk, special regulations could be written that would provide a framework for very low cost and safe development.

Sustainable Energy Technology and Policies

Author: Sudipta De
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9811071888
Format: PDF, ePub
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This book presents a state-of-the-art compilation focusing on both technological and policy aspects of sustainable energy production and consumption, which deals with issues like the need for and planning of smart cities, alternative transport fuel options, sustainable power production, pollution control technologies etc. The book comprises contributions from experts from all over the world, and addresses energy sustainability from different viewpoints. Specifically, the book focuses on energy sustainability in the Indian scenario with a background of the global perspective. Contributions from academia, policy makers and industry are included to address the challenge from different perspectives. The contents of this book will prove useful to researchers, professionals, and policy makers working in the area of green and sustainable energy.

Research on Energy Issues in China

Author: Jiang Zemin
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 9780123786203
Format: PDF
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China’s rapid economic expansion raises questions internally and externally about how it will acquire the energy it needs to sustain growth. Currently it is the largest producer and consumer of coal; how much will it continue to rely on its abundant natural resource in the face of increasing environmental concerns? Will it embrace new clean coal technologies developed by others or invest in its own? Currently it imports 50% of the oil it consumes; will it invest in technologies that scrub the ocean floor for petroleum deposits? Will it develop new distribution technologies to bring its natural gas reserves closer to population centers? What role will conservation play? And how will China relate to the rest of the international community as it addresses these critical issues. Research on Energy Issues In China presents one prominent insider’s view of China’s key energy issues and his strategy for addressing them. A collection of papers authored by Jiang Zemin, former president of the People’s Republic of China, it appears here in English for the first time. Jiang’s message is an exhortation to the Chinese to invest in science and technology, and research and development, to ensure the steady supply of energy so crucial for sustaining and driving development. He outlines this energy strategy for China: "we need to steadfastly conserve energy, use it efficiently, diversify development, keep the environment clean, be technology driven and cooperate internationally in order to establish a system of energy production, distribution and consumption that is highly efficient, uses advanced technology, produces few pollutant, has minimal impact on the ecosystem, and provides a steady and secure energy supply." Within ten to twenty years, China may well be the world’s largest energy consumption and supply system. This volume offers policy makers, energy industry analysts, researchers, and investors an inside view of how it plans to get there. Compares China’s current energy situation with the developed world Details specific challenges and opportunities in China with respect to coal, oil, nuclear, natural gas, solar, biomass, hydrogen, geothermal, wind, and ocean Presents an eight point energy development policy Provides a guide to China’s future investment in research and development

Energy Resources for Human Settlement in the Solar System and Earth s Future in Space

Author: William A. Ambrose
Publisher: AAPG
ISBN: 0891813829
Format: PDF
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The book's purpose is to provide the quantitative foundation for beginning to think about developing energy and minerals outside of Earth's atmosphere that are necessary to support scientific missions, space and extra-terrestrial scientific stations and permanent colonies, and ultimately expand Earth's economy beyond the near-earth environment to include space resources. We cannot envision a situation where all resources required for future space activities are exported from Earth, therefore, this book clearly illustrates that an effective economy is possible beyond Earth's surface when we consider the resources available in near-Earth space. Our first audience is members of AAPG, American Institute of Mining, Metallurgical and Petroleum Engineers (AIME) and other professionals engaged in energy and resource development.As energy professionals, we are concerned on a daily basis with providing the necessary energy and minerals required for our growing world population and the increasing standard of living that comes with ample energy availability. And more than anything else, AAPG members are explorers. We are the professionals who have pushed back the boundaries of our resource base, from capturing petroleum resources from surface seeps, to drilling onshore wells to extract oil and gas, and to venturing offshore into increasingly difficult and hostile environments to supply the cheap and abundant energy made available by our advances in technology. There are more similarities than differences between deepwater exploration and development, and space exploration. Beyond our own members, however, our audience is every rational human being who understands human health and well-being, quality of life, education and freedom are dependent on the energy and minerals that support our advanced civilization.Space is the next frontier, and as the world civilization expands beyond Earth's surface we hope this publication serves to illustrate there are abundant opportunities to support and maintain - and in fact, allow to prosper - civilization's expansion into space -- Publisher's website.

Biolubricants

Author: Jan C.J. Bart
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 085709632X
Format: PDF
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Lubricants are essential in engineering, however more sustainable formulations are needed to avoid adverse effects on the ecosystem. Bio-based lubricant formulations present a promising solution. Biolubricants: Science and technology is a comprehensive, interdisciplinary and timely review of this important subject. Initial chapters address the principles of lubrication, before systematically reviewing fossil and bio-based feedstock resources for biodegradable lubricants. Further chapters describe catalytic, (bio) chemical functionalisation processes for transformation of feedstocks into commercial products, product development, relevant legislation, life cycle assessment, major product groups and specific performance criteria in all major applications. Final chapters consider markets for biolubricants, issues to consider when selecting and using a lubricant, lubricant disposal and future trends. With its distinguished authors, Biolubricants: Science and technology is a comprehensive reference for an industrial audience of oil formulators and lubrication engineers, as well as researchers and academics with an interest in the subject. It provides an essential overview of scientific and technological developments enabling the cost-effective improvement of biolubricants, something that is crucial for the green future of the lubricant industry. A comprehensive, interdisciplinary and timely review of bio-based lubricant formulations Addresses the principles of lubrication Reviews fossil and bio-based feedstock resources for biodegradable lubricants

Renewable Energy Technologies

Author: Jean-Claude Sabonnadière
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 0470610417
Format: PDF, Kindle
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This book deals with the emerging generation of renewable energy technologies, covering solar energy (photovoltaic, thermal and thermodynamic energy conversion), wind energy, marine energy, small hydropower, geothermal energy, biofuels, biogas and the use of wood as a substitute for fossil fuels.

Natural gas issues

Author: United States. Congress. Senate. Committee on Energy and Natural Resources
Publisher: Government Printing Office
ISBN: 9780160557903
Format: PDF
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