Gasification Technologies

Author: John Rezaiyan
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1420028146
Format: PDF, Mobi
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In contrast to traditional combustion, gasification technologies offer the potential for converting coal and low or negative-value feedstocks, such as petroleum coke and various waste materials into usable energy sources or chemicals. With a growing number of companies operating and marketing systems based on gasification concepts worldwide, this book combines the latest information and real-world experience in developing gasification technologies. Gasification Technologies: A Primer for Engineers and Scientists discusses gasification techniques and the benefits of each technology, including gas clean-up technologies and those used in hybrid systems and fuel cells. It also accounts for the primary products that are recovered and explains how these products are purified and can be used as fuel or for applications in petrochemical processes. The book describes the conditions in which optimal value intermediate products can be recovered, focusing on key factors such as oxygen or air blown reactor, operating temperature, internal and external heating, and reactor design. The authors also establish how gasification can help meet renewable energy targets, address concerns about global warming, and contribute to a better carbon management or achieving Kyoto Protocol commitments. Gasification Technologies provide a multidimensional and well-rounded examination of current technology, research, applications, and development challenges for the commercialization of this increasingly popular technology.

Biomass combustion science technology and engineering

Author: Y. Neubauer
Publisher: Elsevier Inc. Chapters
ISBN: 0128087587
Format: PDF, ePub
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The gasification of biomass promises plentiful options for efficient feedstock utilization. Often, the main goal is the provision of energy in the form of heat or power (or cooling) by burning the combustible gases. Another goal of biomass gasification is the generation of synthesis gases for further catalytic synthesis into base chemicals or storable energy carriers such as liquid fuels (methanol, mixed alcohols, Fischer–Tropsch liquids and dimethyl ether) or gaseous fuels such as substitute natural gas (SNG) or hydrogen. This chapter describes the fundamentals of gasification, technological developments and future trends for different sizes of plants and gives an overview of the process chains incorporating biomass gasification.

Industrial Coal Gasification Technologies Covering Baseline and High Ash Coal

Author: Martin Gräbner
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 3527336931
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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The ongoing discussion about reaching the "peak-oil point" (maximal delivery rate with conventional methods) emphasizes a fundamental change of the frame conditions of oil-based basic products. The alternative with the largest potential is the use of coal. Coal gasification is the production of coal gas (a mixture of mainly hydrogen and carbon monoxide) from coal adding agents like steam/water and oxygen, which can be used in a number of industrial processes (e.g. hydroformulation and Fischer-Tropsch process). Many different kinds of coal do naturally occur, and due to shrinking natural resources, there has been a substantial gain of interest in poor, ash-rich coal. Beside the quality of coal, there is a number of other parameters influencing the efficiency of coal gasification, such as temperature, pressure, and reactor type. Although several books dealing with the subject of gasification have recently been published, few are strictly focussed on coal as feedstock. This monograph provides the reader with the necessary chemical background on coal gasification. Several types of coal (baseline coal and ash-rich coal) are compared systematically, pointing out the technological efforts achieved so far to overcome this challenge. Using a new, innovative order scheme to evaluate the gasification process at a glance (the ternary diagram), the complex network of chemistry, engineering, and economic needs can be overviewed in a highly efficient way. This book is a must-have for Chemical and Process Engineers, Engineering Students, as well as Scientists in the Chemical Industry.

The Scientist or Engineer as an Expert Witness

Author: James G Speight
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1420052594
Format: PDF, Kindle
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The increased technical nature of litigation coupled with an increase in the number of cases have given rise to the need for a book specifically written for scientists and engineers called to testify as expert witnesses. Unique in its approach, The Scientist or Engineer as an Expert Witness assists these experts in clearly conveying the often complicated information to a non-technical audience. Highly detailed and exceedingly thorough in scope, the book begins with a complete discussion of the functions of the expert witness before delving into the process of how attorneys find experts. A significant portion discusses the professional resume and other tools the expert can use to market him- or herself. The author supplies a helpful primer on the rules of evidence and a discussion of the attorney-expert witness relationship. He includes ample treatment of the use of reports and visual aids, as well as issues that arise during depositions. The book closes with a comprehensive discussion of the trial itself, followed by post-trial responsibilities. A complete glossary of terms further clarifies the material. Dr. James G. Speight has more than 40 years’ experience in areas associated with the properties and processing of conventional and synthetic fuels. He is the editor of the journals Petroleum Science and Technology, Energy Sources Part A: Recovery, Utilization, and Environmental Effects, and Energy Sources Part B: Economics, Planning, and Policy. He has testified numerous times as an expert witness and the guidance he provides gives witnesses all the information needed to testify confidently and effectively.

Advances in Fischer Tropsch Synthesis Catalysts and Catalysis

Author: B. H. Davis
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9781420062571
Format: PDF, Docs
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Rising oil costs have stimulated significant interest in the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) as a method for producing a synthetic petroleum substitute. Drawn from the proceedings at a symposium held during the 236th meeting of the American Chemical Society in Philadelphia in August 2008, Advances in Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis, Catalysts, and Catalysis explores the recent developments in Fischer-Tropsch technology, which holds great promise in the area of renewable resources. Expert contributors explore a range of issues The book focuses on three main themes: catalyst preparation and activation, reaction mechanism, and process-related topics. A panel of expert contributors discusses synthesis of catalysts, carbon nanomaterials, nitric oxide calcinations, the influence of carbon, catalytic performance issues, chelating agents, and Cu and alkali promoters. They also explore Co/silica catalysts, thermodynamic control, the Two Alpha model, co-feeding experiments, internal diffusion limitations, Fe-LTFT selectivity, and the effect of co-fed water. Lastly, the book examines cross-flow filtration, kinetic studies, reduction of CO2 emissions, syncrude, and low-temperature water-gas shift. Attaining the maximum catalytic activity and catalyst life The themes explored in the book demonstrate that while the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) has advanced in maturity, many issues remain concerning the preparation of increasingly active catalysts and the method of activation to attain the maximum catalytic activity and catalyst life. The book includes coverage of the structural features, their changes, and the application of increasingly sophisticated characterization techniques, shedding light on the reaction mechanism and providing a glimpse into the processes and reaction rates under realistic commercial process conditions.

Industrial Gas Handbook

Author: Frank G. Kerry
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9781420008265
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Drawing on Frank G. Kerry’s more than 60 years of experience as a practicing engineer, the Industrial Gas Handbook: Gas Separation and Purification provides from-the-trenches advice that helps practicing engineers master and advance in the field. It offers detailed discussions and up-to-date approaches to process cycles for cryogenic separation of air, adsorption processes for front-end air purification, and related process control and instrumentation. The book uses SI units in accordance with international industry and covers topics such as chronological development, industrial applications, air separation technologies, noble gases, front end purification systems, insulation, non-cryogenic separation, safety, cleaning for oxygen systems, economics, and product liquefaction, storage, and transportation. No other book currently available takes the practical approach of this book — they are either outdated, too theoretical, or narrow in focus. In a clear and effective presentation, Industrial Gas Handbook: Gas Separation and Purification covers the principles and applications of industrial gas separation and purification.

Fundamentals of Renewable Energy Processes

Author: Aldo V. da Rosa
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 0123978254
Format: PDF, Docs
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With energy sustainability and security at the forefront of public discourse worldwide, there is a pressing need to foster an understanding of clean, safe alternative energy sources such as solar and wind power. Aldo da Rosa’s highly respected and comprehensive resource fulfills this need; it has provided thousands of engineers, scientists, students and professionals alike with a thorough grounding in the scientific principles underlying the complex world of renewable energy technologies. This new third edition of the classic text highlights advances in this vital area, which are proceeding at an unprecedented pace, allowing everyone interested in this burgeoning field to keep up with the latest developments in diverse topics from solar cooling to renewable energy storage. Illuminates the basic principles behind all key renewable power sources- solar, wind, biomass, hydropower & fuel cells Connects scientific theory with practical implementation through physical examples; end-of-chapter questions help readers apply their knowledge Written by one of the world’s foremost experts in renewable energy, drawing from his decades of experience in academia and industry NEW TO THIS EDITION: -All new chapter on pivotal renewable energy storage technologies -Now includes discussion of power grid and transmission issues -Expanded coverage of Hydropower and advances in PV cells -New and improved figures and additional end-of-chapter problems