Genetically Engineered Organisms

Author: Deborah K. Letourneau
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1420042033
Format: PDF, Docs
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Genetic engineering suggests new avenues for constructing useful products, but it also poses hazards to the health of the environment and the public. Delineating those hazards is complicated, difficult, and important at every level of risk assessment and risk management decision-making. Risk assessment and risk management may be further complicated by the need to discover more detailed information than is usually available. Genetically Engineered Organisms: Assessing Environmental and Human Health Effects gives credence to good science and to the notion that we do not have to argue about the ecological and human health effects of genetic engineering. Instead, it supports the position that we can undertake the painstaking science necessary to identify and understand those effects. Written by researchers who have done cutting edge research in disciplines such as botany, entomology, plant pathology, and other agricultural and environmental sciences, this book elaborates critical research on pollen movement, spread of transgenes in natural communities, fitness effects, resistance development, and unpredicted impacts on target and non-target organisms. These topics are explored in contexts ranging from Bt corn events and viral resistant oats to transgenic salmon and altered malarial vectors. Many chapters address theoretical and informational gaps that research presents to questions of biosafety, and some offer historical insights into factors that may affect risk assessment and risk management decision-making at the community, national, and international levels.

Safety of Genetically Engineered Foods

Author: National Research Council
Publisher: National Academies Press
ISBN: 9780309166157
Format: PDF, ePub
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Assists policymakers in evaluating the appropriate scientific methods for detecting unintended changes in food and assessing the potential for adverse health effects from genetically modified products. In this book, the committee recommended that greater scrutiny should be given to foods containing new compounds or unusual amounts of naturally occurring substances, regardless of the method used to create them. The book offers a framework to guide federal agencies in selecting the route of safety assessment. It identifies and recommends several pre- and post-market approaches to guide the assessment of unintended compositional changes that could result from genetically modified foods and research avenues to fill the knowledge gaps.

Field Testing Genetically Modified Organisms

Author: National Research Council
Publisher: National Academies Press
ISBN: 9780309040761
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Potential benefits from the use of genetically modified organisms--such as bacteria that biodegrade environmental pollutants--are enormous. To minimize the risks of releasing such organisms into the environment, regulators are working to develop rational safeguards. This volume provides a comprehensive examination of the issues surrounding testing these organisms in the laboratory or the field and a practical framework for making decisions about organism release. Beginning with a discussion of classical versus molecular techniques for genetic alteration, the volume is divided into major sections for plants and microorganisms and covers the characteristics of altered organisms, past experience with releases, and such specific issues as whether plant introductions could promote weediness. The executive summary presents major conclusions and outlines the recommended decision-making framework.

Genetically Engineered Crops

Author: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine
Publisher: National Academies Press
ISBN: 0309437385
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Genetically engineered (GE) crops were first introduced commercially in the 1990s. After two decades of production, some groups and individuals remain critical of the technology based on their concerns about possible adverse effects on human health, the environment, and ethical considerations. At the same time, others are concerned that the technology is not reaching its potential to improve human health and the environment because of stringent regulations and reduced public funding to develop products offering more benefits to society. While the debate about these and other questions related to the genetic engineering techniques of the first 20 years goes on, emerging genetic-engineering technologies are adding new complexities to the conversation. Genetically Engineered Crops builds on previous related Academies reports published between 1987 and 2010 by undertaking a retrospective examination of the purported positive and adverse effects of GE crops and to anticipate what emerging genetic-engineering technologies hold for the future. This report indicates where there are uncertainties about the economic, agronomic, health, safety, or other impacts of GE crops and food, and makes recommendations to fill gaps in safety assessments, increase regulatory clarity, and improve innovations in and access to GE technology.

Gene Drives on the Horizon

Author: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine
Publisher: National Academies Press
ISBN: 0309437873
Format: PDF
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Research on gene drive systems is rapidly advancing. Many proposed applications of gene drive research aim to solve environmental and public health challenges, including the reduction of poverty and the burden of vector-borne diseases, such as malaria and dengue, which disproportionately impact low and middle income countries. However, due to their intrinsic qualities of rapid spread and irreversibility, gene drive systems raise many questions with respect to their safety relative to public and environmental health. Because gene drive systems are designed to alter the environments we share in ways that will be hard to anticipate and impossible to completely roll back, questions about the ethics surrounding use of this research are complex and will require very careful exploration. Gene Drives on the Horizon outlines the state of knowledge relative to the science, ethics, public engagement, and risk assessment as they pertain to research directions of gene drive systems and governance of the research process. This report offers principles for responsible practices of gene drive research and related applications for use by investigators, their institutions, the research funders, and regulators.

Animal Biotechnology

Author: Committee on Agricultural Biotechnology, Health, and the Environment
Publisher: National Academies Press
ISBN: 0309084393
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Genetic-based animal biotechnology has produced new food and pharmaceutical products and promises many more advances to benefit humankind. These exciting prospects are accompanied by considerable unease, however, about matters such as safety and ethics. This book identifies science-based and policy-related concerns about animal biotechnology-key issues that must be resolved before the new breakthroughs can reach their potential. The book includes a short history of the field and provides understandable definitions of terms like cloning. Looking at technologies on the near horizon, the authors discuss what we know and what we fear about their effects-the inadvertent release of dangerous microorganisms, the safety of products derived from biotechnology, the impact of genetically engineered animals on their environment. In addition to these concerns, the book explores animal welfare concerns, and our societal and institutional capacity to manage and regulate the technology and its products. This accessible volume will be important to everyone interested in the implications of the use of animal biotechnology.

Genetically Engineered Organisms

Author: Deborah K. Letourneau
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1420042033
Format: PDF, Docs
Download Now
Genetic engineering suggests new avenues for constructing useful products, but it also poses hazards to the health of the environment and the public. Delineating those hazards is complicated, difficult, and important at every level of risk assessment and risk management decision-making. Risk assessment and risk management may be further complicated by the need to discover more detailed information than is usually available. Genetically Engineered Organisms: Assessing Environmental and Human Health Effects gives credence to good science and to the notion that we do not have to argue about the ecological and human health effects of genetic engineering. Instead, it supports the position that we can undertake the painstaking science necessary to identify and understand those effects. Written by researchers who have done cutting edge research in disciplines such as botany, entomology, plant pathology, and other agricultural and environmental sciences, this book elaborates critical research on pollen movement, spread of transgenes in natural communities, fitness effects, resistance development, and unpredicted impacts on target and non-target organisms. These topics are explored in contexts ranging from Bt corn events and viral resistant oats to transgenic salmon and altered malarial vectors. Many chapters address theoretical and informational gaps that research presents to questions of biosafety, and some offer historical insights into factors that may affect risk assessment and risk management decision-making at the community, national, and international levels.

Genetically Modified Pest Protected Plants

Author: National Research Council
Publisher: National Academies Press
ISBN: 9780309172127
Format: PDF, Mobi
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This book explores the risks and benefits of crops that are genetically modified for pest resistance, the urgency of establishing an appropriate regulatory framework for these products, and the importance of public understanding of the issues. The committee critically reviews federal policies toward transgenic products, the 1986 coordinated framework among the key federal agencies in the field, and rules proposed by the Environmental Protection Agency for regulation of plant pesticides. This book provides detailed analyses of: Mechanisms and results of genetic engineering compared to conventional breeding for pest resistance. Review of scientific issues associated with transgenic pest-protected plants, such as allergenicity, impact on nontarget plants, evolution of the pest species, and other concerns. Overview of regulatory framework and its use of scientific information with suggestions for improvements.

Environmental Risk Assessment of Genetically Modified Organisms

Author: David Alan Andow
Publisher: CABI
ISBN: 1845933907
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Challenges and Opportunities with GM Crops in Vietnam: the Case of Bt Cotton; Cotton Production in Vietnam; Consideration of Problem Formulation an Option Assessment (PFOA) for Environmental Risk Assessment: Bt Cotton in Vietnam; Transgene Locus Structure and Expression; Non-target and Biological Diversity Risk Assessment; Potential Effect of Transgenic Cotton on Non-target Herbivores in Vietnam; Invertebrate Predators in Bt Cotton in Vietnam: Techniques for Prioritizing Species and Developing Risk Hypotheses for Risk Assessment; Potential Effects of Transgenic Cotton on Non-target Insect Parasitoids in Vietnam; Potential Effects of Transgenic Cotton on Flower Visitors in Vietnam; Potential Effects of Transgenic Cotton on Soil Ecosystem Processes in Vietnam; Environmental Risks Associated with Gene Flow from Transgenic Cotton in Vietnam; Resistance Risk Assessment and Management for Bt Cotton in Vietnam; Challenges and Opportunities with Bt Cotton in Vietnam: Synthesis and Recommendations.

Environmental Risk Assessment of Genetically Modified Organisms

Author: A. R. Kapuscinski
Publisher: CABI
ISBN: 184593296X
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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The decline of many individual and wild fish stocks has commanded an increase in aquaculture production to meet the protein demands of a growing population. Alongside selective breeding schemes and expanding facilities, transgenic methods have received increasing attention as a potential factor in meeting these demands. With a focus on developing countries, this third text in the series provides detailed information on environmental biosafety policy and regulation and presents methodologies for assessing ecological risks associated with transgenic fish --Publisher website, http://www.cabi.org/bk_BookDisplay.asp?PID=2054, viewed 6 December, 2007.