Genocide

Author: Berel Lang
Publisher: University of Pennsylvania Press
ISBN: 0812293649
Format: PDF, ePub
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The term "genocide"—"group killing"—which first appeared in Raphael Lemkin's 1944 book, Axis Rule in Occupied Europe, had by 1948 established itself in international law through the United Nations Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide. Since then the charge of genocide has been both widely applied but also contested. In Genocide: The Act as Idea, Berel Lang examines and illuminates the concept of genocide, at once articulating difficulties in its definition and proposing solutions to them. In his analysis, Lang explores the relation of genocide to group identity, individual and corporate moral responsibility, the concept of individual and group intentions, and the concept of evil more generally. The idea of genocide, Lang argues, represents a notable advance in the history of political and ethical thought which proposed alternatives to it, like "crimes against humanity," fail to take into account.

Raphael Lemkin and the Concept of Genocide

Author: Douglas Irvin-Erickson
Publisher: University of Pennsylvania Press
ISBN: 081229341X
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Raphaël Lemkin (1900-1959) coined the word "genocide" in the winter of 1942 and led a movement in the United Nations to outlaw the crime, setting his sights on reimagining human rights institutions and humanitarian law after World War II. After the UN adopted the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide in 1948, Lemkin slipped into obscurity, and within a few short years many of the same governments that had agreed to outlaw genocide and draft a Universal Declaration of Human Rights tried to undermine these principles. This intellectual biography of one of the twentieth century's most influential theorists and human rights figures sheds new light on the origins of the concept and word "genocide," contextualizing Lemkin's intellectual development in interwar Poland and exploring the evolving connection between his philosophical writings, juridical works, and politics over the following decades. The book presents Lemkin's childhood experience of anti-Jewish violence in imperial Russia; his youthful arguments to expand the laws of war to protect people from their own governments; his early scholarship on Soviet criminal law and nationalities violence; his work in the 1930s to advance a rights-based approach to international law; his efforts in the 1940s to outlaw genocide; and his forays in the 1950s into a social-scientific and historical study of genocide, which he left unfinished. Revealing what the word "genocide" meant to people in the wake of World War II—as the USSR and Western powers sought to undermine the Genocide Convention at the UN, while delegations from small states and former colonies became the strongest supporters of Lemkin's law—Raphaël Lemkin and the Concept of Genocide examines how the meaning of genocide changed over the decades and highlights the relevance of Lemkin's thought to our own time.

Genocide and Human Rights

Author: J. Roth
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 0230554830
Format: PDF, ePub
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Genocide is evil or nothing could be. It raises a host of questions about humanity, rights, justice, and reality, which are key areas of concern for philosophy. Strangely, however, philosophers have tended to ignore genocide. Even more problematic, philosophy and philosophers bear more responsibility for genocide than they have usually admitted. In Genocide and Human Rights: A Philosophical Guide, an international group of twenty-five contemporary philosophers work to correct those deficiencies by showing how philosophy can and should respond to genocide, particularly in ways that defend human rights.

Universal Jurisdiction

Author: Stephen Macedo
Publisher: University of Pennsylvania Press
ISBN: 9780812219500
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Universal jurisdiction is becoming a potent instrument of international law, but it is poorly understood by legal experts and remains a mystery to most public officials and citizens.

Inherent Human Rights

Author: Johannes Morsink
Publisher: University of Pennsylvania Press
ISBN: 9780812241624
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Confronting the evils of World War II and building on the legacy of the 1776 Declaration of Independence and the 1789 French Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, a group of world citizens including Eleanor Roosevelt drafted the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Adopted by the United Nations in 1948, the Universal Declaration has been translated into 300 languages and has become the basis for most other international human rights texts and norms. In spite of the global success of this document, however, a philosophical disconnect exists between what major theorists have said a human right is and the foundational text of the very movement they advocate. In Inherent Human Rights: Philosophical Roots of the Universal Declaration, philosopher and political theorist Johannes Morsink offers an alternative to contemporary assumptions. A major historian of the Universal Declaration, Morsink traces the philosophical roots of the Declaration back to the Enlightenment and to a shared revulsion at the horrors of the Holocaust. He defends the Declaration's perspective that all people have human rights simply by virtue of being born into the human family and that human beings have these rights regardless of any government or court action (or inaction). Like mathematical principles, human rights are truly universal, not the products of a particular culture, economic scheme, or political system. Our understanding of their existence can be blocked only by madness and false ideologies. Morsink argues that the drafters of the Declaration shared this metaphysical view of human rights. By denying the inherence of human rights and their metaphysical nature, and removing the concepts of the Declaration from their historical and philosophical context, contemporary constructivist scholars and pragmatic activists create an unnecessary and potentially dangerous political fog. The book carefully dissects various human rights models and ends with a defense of the Declaration's cosmopolitan vision against charges of unrealistic utopianism and Western ethnocentrism. Inherent Human Rights takes exception to the reigning view that the Golden Rule is the best defense of human rights. Instead, it calls for us to "follow the lead of the Declaration's drafters and liberate the idea of human rights from the realm of the political and the juridical, which is where contemporary theorists have imprisoned it."

Looting and Rape in Wartime

Author: Tuba Inal
Publisher: University of Pennsylvania Press
ISBN: 0812244761
Format: PDF, ePub
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Looting and Rape in Wartime examines the causes of the hundred-year gap between the prohibition against wartime looting and that against rape, theorizing the conditions necessary for the emergence of a global prohibition regime in which a particular practice is not tolerated.

Concepts and Strategies in International Human Rights

Author: George J. Andreopoulos
Publisher: Peter Lang Pub Incorporated
ISBN:
Format: PDF, Docs
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Although the celebrations surrounding the fiftieth anniversary of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) highlighted some remarkable achievements in the human rights movement, the international community must remain cognizant of a whole new array of unprecedented challenges. These challenges relate to the relevance of the conceptual framework within which the human rights movement has been operating as well as to the need for effective strategies of promotion and protection.

Eine kurze Geschichte der Menschheit

Author: Yuval Noah Harari
Publisher: DVA
ISBN: 364110498X
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Krone der Schöpfung? Vor 100 000 Jahren war der Homo sapiens noch ein unbedeutendes Tier, das unauffällig in einem abgelegenen Winkel des afrikanischen Kontinents lebte. Unsere Vorfahren teilten sich den Planeten mit mindestens fünf weiteren menschlichen Spezies, und die Rolle, die sie im Ökosystem spielten, war nicht größer als die von Gorillas, Libellen oder Quallen. Vor 70 000 Jahren dann vollzog sich ein mysteriöser und rascher Wandel mit dem Homo sapiens, und es war vor allem die Beschaffenheit seines Gehirns, die ihn zum Herren des Planeten und zum Schrecken des Ökosystems werden ließ. Bis heute hat sich diese Vorherrschaft stetig zugespitzt: Der Mensch hat die Fähigkeit zu schöpferischem und zu zerstörerischem Handeln wie kein anderes Lebewesen. Anschaulich, unterhaltsam und stellenweise hochkomisch zeichnet Yuval Harari die Geschichte des Menschen nach und zeigt alle großen, aber auch alle ambivalenten Momente unserer Menschwerdung.

Unterdr ckung und Befreiung

Author: Paulo Freire
Publisher: Waxmann Verlag
ISBN: 9783830968030
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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Diese Sammlung von Schriften aus der Zeit von 1970 bis 1990 des brasilianischen Pädagogen Paulo Freire (1921-1997) gibt einen Einblick in die Grundlagen und Prinzipien seiner Bildungsarbeit auf der Basis der Pädagogik der Befreiung. In den ausgewählten Texten werden nicht nur pädagogische Probleme und inhaltlich-methodische Fragen der Bildungsarbeit thematisiert. Sie enthalten ebenso Analysen und Bewertungen von Politik, Kultur, Religion, Ethik und Veränderungsmöglichkeiten von Gesellschaft - eine Erweiterung, die sich gegen eine Vorstellung wendet, Pädagogik sei von Gesellschaft und Politik losgelöst zu behandeln. Scharfsinnig hat Freire u.a. die verheerenden Folgen des Neoliberalismus für Individuum und Gesellschaft analysiert und zum widerständigen Denken und Handeln ermuntert. Eine Auswahl repräsentativer alter und neuer Texte von Paulo Freire: Wer sie zur Hand nimmt, entdeckt rasch, dass uns dieser brasilianische Pädagoge nicht nur für die Theorie und Praxis unserer Erziehungsarbeit, sondern für unser Überleben Entscheidendes zu sagen hat. Prof. Dr. Ulrich Becker, Universität Hannover