Geometric Modeling and Mesh Generation from Scanned Images

Author: Yongjie Jessica Zhang
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1482227770
Format: PDF, ePub
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Cutting-Edge Techniques to Better Analyze and Predict Complex Physical Phenomena Geometric Modeling and Mesh Generation from Scanned Images shows how to integrate image processing, geometric modeling, and mesh generation with the finite element method (FEM) to solve problems in computational biology, medicine, materials science, and engineering. Based on the author’s recent research and course at Carnegie Mellon University, the text explains the fundamentals of medical imaging, image processing, computational geometry, mesh generation, visualization, and finite element analysis. It also explores novel and advanced applications in computational biology, medicine, materials science, and other engineering areas. One of the first to cover this emerging interdisciplinary field, the book addresses biomedical/material imaging, image processing, geometric modeling and visualization, FEM, and biomedical and engineering applications. It introduces image-mesh-simulation pipelines, reviews numerical methods used in various modules of the pipelines, and discusses several scanning techniques, including ones to probe polycrystalline materials. The book next presents the fundamentals of geometric modeling and computer graphics, geometric objects and transformations, and curves and surfaces as well as two isocontouring methods: marching cubes and dual contouring. It then describes various triangular/tetrahedral and quadrilateral/hexahedral mesh generation techniques. The book also discusses volumetric T-spline modeling for isogeometric analysis (IGA) and introduces some new developments of FEM in recent years with applications.

Image Based Geometric Modeling and Mesh Generation

Author: Yongjie (Jessica) Zhang
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 940074255X
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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As a new interdisciplinary research area, “image-based geometric modeling and mesh generation” integrates image processing, geometric modeling and mesh generation with finite element method (FEM) to solve problems in computational biomedicine, materials sciences and engineering. It is well known that FEM is currently well-developed and efficient, but mesh generation for complex geometries (e.g., the human body) still takes about 80% of the total analysis time and is the major obstacle to reduce the total computation time. It is mainly because none of the traditional approaches is sufficient to effectively construct finite element meshes for arbitrarily complicated domains, and generally a great deal of manual interaction is involved in mesh generation. This contributed volume, the first for such an interdisciplinary topic, collects the latest research by experts in this area. These papers cover a broad range of topics, including medical imaging, image alignment and segmentation, image-to-mesh conversion, quality improvement, mesh warping, heterogeneous materials, biomodelcular modeling and simulation, as well as medical and engineering applications. This contributed volume, the first for such an interdisciplinary topic, collects the latest research by experts in this area. These papers cover a broad range of topics, including medical imaging, image alignment and segmentation, image-to-mesh conversion, quality improvement, mesh warping, heterogeneous materials, biomodelcular modeling and simulation, as well as medical and engineering applications. This contributed volume, the first for such an interdisciplinary topic, collects the latest research by experts in this area. These papers cover a broad range of topics, including medical imaging, image alignment and segmentation, image-to-mesh conversion, quality improvement, mesh warping, heterogeneous materials, biomodelcular modeling and simulation, as well as medical and engineering applications. This contributed volume, the first for such an interdisciplinary topic, collects the latest research by experts in this area. These papers cover a broad range of topics, including medical imaging, image alignment and segmentation, image-to-mesh conversion, quality improvement, mesh warping, heterogeneous materials, biomodelcular modeling and simulation, as well as medical and engineering applications.

Delaunay Mesh Generation

Author: Siu-Wing Cheng
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1584887311
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Written by authors at the forefront of modern algorithms research, Delaunay Mesh Generation demonstrates the power and versatility of Delaunay meshers in tackling complex geometric domains ranging from polyhedra with internal boundaries to piecewise smooth surfaces. Covering both volume and surface meshes, the authors fully explain how and why these meshing algorithms work. The book is one of the first to integrate a vast amount of cutting-edge material on Delaunay triangulations. It begins with introducing the problem of mesh generation and describing algorithms for constructing Delaunay triangulations. The authors then present algorithms for generating high-quality meshes in polygonal and polyhedral domains. They also illustrate how to use restricted Delaunay triangulations to extend the algorithms to surfaces with ridges and patches and volumes with smooth surfaces. For researchers and graduate students, the book offers a rigorous theoretical analysis of mesh generation methods. It provides the necessary mathematical foundations and core theoretical results upon which researchers can build even better algorithms in the future. For engineers, the book shows how the algorithms work well in practice. It explains how to effectively implement them in the design and programming of mesh generation software.

Isosurfaces

Author: Rephael Wenger
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1466571020
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Ever since Lorensen and Cline published their paper on the Marching Cubes algorithm, isosurfaces have been a standard technique for the visualization of 3D volumetric data. Yet there is no book exclusively devoted to isosurfaces. Isosurfaces: Geometry, Topology, and Algorithms represents the first book to focus on basic algorithms for isosurface construction. It also gives a rigorous mathematical perspective on some of the algorithms and results. In color throughout, the book covers the Marching Cubes algorithm and variants, dual contouring algorithms, multilinear interpolation, multiresolution isosurface extraction, isosurfaces in four dimensions, interval volumes, and contour trees. It also describes data structures for faster isosurface extraction as well as methods for selecting significant isovalues. For designers of visualization software, the book presents an organized overview of the various algorithms associated with isosurfaces. For graduate students, it provides a solid introduction to research in this area. For visualization researchers, the book serves as a reference to the vast literature on isosurfaces.

Polygon Mesh Processing

Author: Mario Botsch
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1568814267
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Geometry processing, or mesh processing, is a fast-growing area of research that uses concepts from applied mathematics, computer science, and engineering to design efficient algorithms for the acquisition, reconstruction, analysis, manipulation, simulation, and transmission of complex 3D models. Applications of geometry processing algorithms already cover a wide range of areas from multimedia, entertainment, and classical computer-aided design, to biomedical computing, reverse engineering, and scientific computing. Over the last several years, triangle meshes have become increasingly popular, as irregular triangle meshes have developed into a valuable alternative to traditional spline surfaces. This book discusses the whole geometry processing pipeline based on triangle meshes. The pipeline starts with data input, for example, a model acquired by 3D scanning techniques. This data can then go through processes of error removal, mesh creation, smoothing, conversion, morphing, and more. The authors detail techniques for those processes using triangle meshes. A supplemental website contains downloads and additional information.

Finite Element Mesh Generation

Author: Daniel S.H. Lo
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 041569048X
Format: PDF, Docs
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Highlights the Progression of Meshing Technologies and Their Applications Finite Element Mesh Generation provides a concise and comprehensive guide to the application of finite element mesh generation over 2D domains, curved surfaces, and 3D space. Organised according to the geometry and dimension of the problem domains, it develops from the basic meshing algorithms to the most advanced schemes to deal with problems with specific requirements such as boundary conformity, adaptive and anisotropic elements, shape qualities, and mesh optimization. It sets out the fundamentals of popular techniques, including: Delaunay triangulation Advancing-front (ADF) approach Quadtree/Octree techniques Refinement and optimization-based strategies From the geometrical and the topological aspects and their associated operations and inter-relationships, each approach is vividly described and illustrated with examples. Beyond the algorithms, the book also explores the practice of using metric tensor and surface curvatures for generating anisotropic meshes on parametric space. It presents results from research including 3D anisotropic meshing, mesh generation over unbounded domains, meshing by means of intersection, re-meshing by Delaunay-ADF approach, mesh refinement and optimization, generation of hexahedral meshes, and large scale and parallel meshing, along with innovative unpublished meshing methods. The author provides illustrations of major meshing algorithms, pseudo codes, and programming codes in C++ or FORTRAN. Geared toward research centers, universities, and engineering companies, Finite Element Mesh Generation describes mesh generation methods and fundamental techniques, and also serves as a valuable reference for laymen and experts alike.

Dynamic Being

Author: Vesselin Petrov
Publisher: Cambridge Scholars Publishing
ISBN: 1443882437
Format: PDF, Docs
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Petascale Computing

Author: David A. Bader
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9781584889106
Format: PDF, Docs
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Although the highly anticipated petascale computers of the near future will perform at an order of magnitude faster than today’s quickest supercomputer, the scaling up of algorithms and applications for this class of computers remains a tough challenge. From scalable algorithm design for massive concurrency toperformance analyses and scientific visualization, Petascale Computing: Algorithms and Applications captures the state of the art in high-performance computing algorithms and applications. Featuring contributions from the world’s leading experts in computational science, this edited collection explores the use of petascale computers for solving the most difficult scientific and engineering problems of the current century. Covering a wide range of important topics, the book illustrates how petascale computing can be applied to space and Earth science missions, biological systems, weather prediction, climate science, disasters, black holes, and gamma ray bursts. It details the simulation of multiphysics, cosmological evolution, molecular dynamics, and biomolecules. The book also discusses computational aspects that include the Uintah framework, Enzo code, multithreaded algorithms, petaflops, performance analysis tools, multilevel finite element solvers, finite element code development, Charm++, and the Cactus framework. Supplying petascale tools, programming methodologies, and an eight-page color insert, this volume addresses the challenging problems of developing application codes that can take advantage of the architectural features of the new petascale systems in advance of their first deployment.

Spatial Tessellations

Author: Atsuyuki Okabe
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 047031785X
Format: PDF, Docs
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Spatial data analysis is a fast growing area and Voronoi diagrams provide a means of naturally partitioning space into subregions to facilitate spatial data manipulation, modelling of spatial structures, pattern recognition and locational optimization. With such versatility, the Voronoi diagram and its relative, the Delaunay triangulation, provide valuable tools for the analysis of spatial data. This is a rapidly growing research area and in this fully updated second edition the authors provide an up-to-date and comprehensive unification of all the previous literature on the subject of Voronoi diagrams. Features: * Expands on the highly acclaimed first edition * Provides an up-to-date and comprehensive survey of the existing literature on Voronoi diagrams * Includes a useful compendium of applications * Contains an extensive bibliography A wide range of applications is discussed, enabling this book to serve as an important reference volume on this topic. The text will appeal to students and researchers studying spatial data in a number of areas, in particular, applied probability, computational geometry, and Geographic Information Science (GIS). This book will appeal equally to those whose interests in Voronoi diagrams are theoretical, practical or both.

Image Processing and Acquisition using Python

Author: Ravishankar Chityala
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1498760570
Format: PDF, ePub
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Image Processing and Acquisition using Python provides readers with a sound foundation in both image acquisition and image processing—one of the first books to integrate these topics together. By improving readers’ knowledge of image acquisition techniques and corresponding image processing, the book will help them perform experiments more effectively and cost efficiently as well as analyze and measure more accurately. Long recognized as one of the easiest languages for non-programmers to learn, Python is used in a variety of practical examples. A refresher for more experienced readers, the first part of the book presents an introduction to Python, Python modules, reading and writing images using Python, and an introduction to images. The second part discusses the basics of image processing, including pre/post processing using filters, segmentation, morphological operations, and measurements. The last part describes image acquisition using various modalities, such as x-ray, CT, MRI, light microscopy, and electron microscopy. These modalities encompass most of the common image acquisition methods currently used by researchers in academia and industry.