Geospatial Techniques in Urban Hazard and Disaster Analysis

Author: Pamela S. Showalter
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9789048122387
Format: PDF, ePub
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This book is the second in a series that examines how geographic information te- nologies (GIT) are being implemented to improve our understanding of a variety of hazard and disaster situations. The main types of technologies covered under the umbrella of GIT, as used in this volume, are geographic information systems, remote sensing (not including ground-penetrating or underwater systems), and global po- tioning systems. Our focus is on urban areas, broadly de ned in order to encompass rapidly growing and densely populated areas that may not be considered “urban” in the conventional sense. The material presented here is also unabashedly applied – our goal is to provide GIT tools to those seeking more ef cient ways to respond to, recover from, mitigate, prevent, and/or model hazard and disaster events in urban settings. Therefore, this book was created not only with our colleagues in the academic world in mind, but also for hazards professionals and practitioners. We also believe graduate students will nd the material presented here of interest, as may upper division undergraduate students.

Dhaka Megacity

Author: Ashraf Dewan
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9400767358
Format: PDF, Kindle
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The book Dhaka Megacity: Geospatial Perspectives on Urbanisation, Environment and Health presents the use of geospatial techniques to address a number of environmental issues, including land use change, climatic variability, urban sprawl, population density modelling, flooding, environmental health, water quality, energy resources, urban growth modelling, infectious diseases and the quality of life. Although the work is focused on the Megacity of Dhaka in Bangladesh, the techniques and methods that are used to research these issues can be utilized in any other areas where rapid population growth coupled with unplanned urbanization is leading to environmental degradation. The book is useful for people working in the area of Geospatial Science, Urban Geography, Environmental Management and International Development. Since the chapters in the book cover a range of environmental issues, this book describes useful tools for assisting informed decision making, particularly in developing countries.

Emerging Methods and Multidisciplinary Applications in Geospatial Research

Author: Albert, Donald P.
Publisher: IGI Global
ISBN: 146661952X
Format: PDF, Kindle
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We need to understand how to utilize Geospatial Research in order to help us solve problems in environmental, life science, and defense industries, as well as intelligence, natural resources, medical and public safety industries. Emerging Methods and Multidisciplinary Applications in Geospatial Research exemplifies the usage of geographic information science and technology (GIS&T) to explore and resolve geographical issues from various application domains within the social and/or physical sciences. It specializes in studies from applied geography that interfaces with geographic information science and technology. This publication is designed to provide planners and policy analysts, practitioners, academicians, and others using GIS&T useful studies that might support decision-making activities.

Floods in a Megacity

Author: Ashraf Dewan
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9400758758
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Flooding is one of the most devastating natural hazards in the world. Available records suggest that both flood frequency and severity are on the rise and this is likely to worsen in the context of climate change. As population, infrastructure and poverty grow rapidly in developing countries, particularly in urban agglomerations of 10 million people or more, floods could cause widespread devastation, economic damage and loss of life. Assessment of vulnerability and risk from naturally occurring phenomena is therefore imperative in order to achieve urban sustainability. This book uses geospatial techniques to evaluate hazards, risk and vulnerability at a metropolitan scale in a data-scarce country. An empirical study was performed using remote sensing, GIS and census data. This research offers a new approach to mapping population, infrastructures and communities at risk which can greatly contribute to the deeper understanding of flood disasters in a rapidly expanding megacity. Examples shown in this book are from Dhaka Megacity, however, the techniques and methods can easily be implemented in medium to large cities of similar characteristics. The book is essential reading for hazard researchers, geospatial scientists, disaster management professionals, geographers, urban planners, and social scientists. Ashraf M. Dewan is currently a Lecturer in the Department of Spatial Sciences at Curtin University, Western Australia (on leave from his substantive position as Associate Professor in the Geography & Environment Department at the University of Dhaka, Bangladesh).

Climate Change and the Sustainable Use of Water Resources

Author: Walter Leal Filho
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9783642222665
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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The book explores the geo-chemical, physical, social and economic impacts of climate change on water supplies. It contains examples and case studies from a wide range of countries, and addresses the need to promote sustainable water use across the world.

Geo Spatial Technologies in Urban Environments

Author: Ryan R. Jensen
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 354069417X
Format: PDF, ePub
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This book expands the current frame of reference of remote sensing and geographic information specialists to include an array of socio-economic and related planning issues. Using remotely sensed data, the project explores the efficacy and policy implications of new approaches toward analyzing data, integrates approaches from human geography and explores the utility of employing geo-technologies to further the politics of local growth and smart growth coalitions, as in green space programs.

Rising Seas

Author: Vivien Gornitz
Publisher: Columbia University Press
ISBN: 0231519206
Format: PDF
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The Earth's climate is already warming due to increased concentrations of human-produced greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, and the specter of rising sea level is one of global warming's most far-reaching threats. Sea level will keep rising long after greenhouse gas emissions have ceased, because of the delay in penetration of surface warming to the ocean depths and because of the slow dissipation of excess atmospheric carbon dioxide. Adopting a long perspective that interprets sea level changes both underway and expected in the near future, Vivien Gornitz completes a highly relevant and necessary study of an unprecedented age in Earth's history. Gornitz consults past climate archives to help better anticipate future developments and prepare for them more effectively. She focuses on several understudied historical events, including the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Anomaly, the Messinian salinity crisis, the rapid filling of the Black Sea (which may have inspired the story of Noah's flood), and the Storrega submarine slide, an incident possibly connected to a sea level occurrence roughly 8,000 years old. By examining dramatic variations in past sea level and climate, Gornitz concretizes the potential consequences of rapid, human-induced warming. She builds historical precedent for coastal hazards associated with a higher ocean level, such as increased damage from storm surge flooding, even if storm characteristics remain unchanged. Citing the examples of Rotterdam, London, New York City, and other forward-looking urban centers that are effectively preparing for higher sea level, Gornitz also delineates the difficult economic and political choices of curbing carbon emissions while underscoring, through past geological analysis, the urgent need to do so.

Toxic Communities

Author: Dorceta Taylor
Publisher: NYU Press
ISBN: 1479861626
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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From St. Louis to New Orleans, from Baltimore to Oklahoma City, there are poor and minority neighborhoods so beset by pollution that just living in them can be hazardous to your health. Due to entrenched segregation, zoning ordinances that privilege wealthier communities, or because businesses have found the ‘paths of least resistance,’ there are many hazardous waste and toxic facilities in these communities, leading residents to experience health and wellness problems on top of the race and class discrimination most already experience. Taking stock of the recent environmental justice scholarship, Toxic Communities examines the connections among residential segregation, zoning, and exposure to environmental hazards. Renowned environmental sociologist Dorceta Taylor focuses on the locations of hazardous facilities in low-income and minority communities and shows how they have been dumped on, contaminated and exposed. Drawing on an array of historical and contemporary case studies from across the country, Taylor explores controversies over racially-motivated decisions in zoning laws, eminent domain, government regulation (or lack thereof), and urban renewal. She provides a comprehensive overview of the debate over whether or not there is a link between environmental transgressions and discrimination, drawing a clear picture of the state of the environmental justice field today and where it is going. In doing so, she introduces new concepts and theories for understanding environmental racism that will be essential for environmental justice scholars. A fascinating landmark study, Toxic Communities greatly contributes to the study of race, the environment, and space in the contemporary United States.

Community Oriented Health Services

Author: Elias Mpofu, PhD, DEd, CRC
Publisher: Springer Publishing Company
ISBN: 082619818X
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Grounded in a transdisciplinary approach, this groundbreaking text provides extensive, evidence-based information on the value of communities as the primary drivers of their own health and well-being. It describes foundational community health concepts and procedures and presents proven strategies for engaging communities as resources for their own health improvementñan important determinant of individual well-being. It is based on recommendations by the World Health Organization's International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health and on the premise that healthy communities are those with populations that participate in their own health promotion, maintenance, and sustenance. The book is unique in its integration of environmental and social justice issues as they significantly affect the advancement of community health. The text focuses on community-oriented health interventions informed by prevention, inclusiveness, and timeliness that both promote better health and are more cost effective than individually focused interventions. It addresses the foundations of community-oriented health services including their history, social determinants, concepts, and policies as well as the economics of community-oriented health services and health disparities and equity. It covers procedures for designing, implementing, monitoring, and evaluating sustainable community health coalitions along with tools for measuring their success. Detailed case studies describe specific settings and themes in U.S. and international community health practice in which communities are both enactors and beneficiaries. An accompanying instructor's manual provides learning exercises, field-based experiential assignments, and multiple-choice questions. A valuable resource for students and practitioners of education, public policy, and social services, this book bridges the perspectives of environmental justice, public health, and community well-being and development, which, while being mutually interdependent, have rarely been considered together. KEY FEATURES: Offers a new paradigm for improving public health through community-driven health coalitions Includes evidence-based strategies for engaging communities in the pursuit of health Demonstrates how to design, implement, monitor, and evaluate community health partnerships Presents transdisciplinary approaches that consider environmental and social justice variables Includes contributions of international authors renowned in community health research and practice

Integrating Disaster Science and Management

Author: Pijush Samui
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 0128120576
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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Integrated Disaster Science and Management: Global Case Studies in Mitigation and Recovery bridges the gap between scientific research on natural disasters and the practice of disaster management. It examines natural hazards, including earthquakes, landslides and tsunamis, and uses integrated disaster management techniques, quantitative methods and big data analytics to create early warning models to mitigate impacts of these hazards and reduce the risk of disaster. It also looks at mitigation as part of the recovery process after a disaster, as in the case of the Nepal earthquake. Edited by global experts in disaster management and engineering, the book offers case studies that focus on the critical phases of disaster management. Identifies advanced techniques and models based on natural disaster science for forecasting disasters and analyzing risk Offers a holistic approach to the problem of disaster management, including preparation, recovery, and resilience Includes coverage of social, economic, and environmental impacts on disasters