Geothermal Systems and Energy Resources

Author: Alper Baba
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1138001090
Format: PDF, Kindle
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In the region comprising Turkey and Greece, people have been using water from geothermal sources for bathing and washing of clothes since ancient times. This region falls within the Alpine-Himalayan orogenic belt and hence is a locus of active volcanism and tectonism and experiences frequent seismic events. This volcanic and tectonic activity has given rise to over 1500 geothermal springs. Its importance was recognized decades ago and the geothermal water is now being utilized for district heating, industrial processing, domestic water supply, balneology and electric power generation. The geothermal potential in this region is large. In Turkey alone it is estimated to be more than 31500 MWt while the proven potential is 4078 MWt. At present 2084 MWt is being utilized for direct applications in Turkey and 135 MWt in Greece. In Turkey electricity is produced for 166 MW installed capacity, whereas in Greece geothermal energy is presently not used for electricity production despite its potential. This book discusses the geochemical evolution of the thermal waters and thermal gases in terms of the current volcano-tectonic setting and associated geological framework that makes the region very important to the geothermal scientific community. The book explains, in a didactic way, the possible applications, depending on local conditions and scales, and it presents new and stimulating ideas for future developments of this renewable energy source. Additionally, the book discusses the role(s) of possible physicochemical processes in deep hydrothermal systems, the volatile provenance and relative contributions of mantle and crustal components to total volatile inventories. It provides the reader with a thorough understanding of the geothermal systems of this region and identifi es the most suitable solutions for specifi c tasks and needs elsewhere in the world. It is the fi rst time that abundant information and data from this region, obtained from intensive research during the last few decades, is unveiled to the international geothermal community. Thus, an international readership, in the professional and academic sectors, as well as in key institutions that deal with geothermal energy, will benefit from the knowledge from geothermal research and experiences obtained from the Aegean Region.

Sustainable Energy Solutions in Agriculture

Author: Jochen Bundschuh
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1315778718
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Sustainability in agriculture and associated primary industries, which are both energy-intensive, is crucial for the development of any country. Increasing scarcity and resulting high fossil fuel prices combined with the need to significantly reduce greenhouse gas emissions, make the improvement of energy efficient farming and increased use of renewable energy essential. This book provides a technological and scientific endeavor to assist society and farming communities in different regions and scales to improve their productivity and sustainability. To fulfill future needs of a modern sustainable agriculture, this book addresses highly actual topics providing innovative, effective and more sustainable solutions for agriculture by using sustainable, environmentally friendly, renewable energy sources and modern energy efficient, cost-improved technologies. The book highlights new areas of research, and further R&D needs. It helps to improve food security for the rapidly growing world population and to reduce carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuel use in agriculture, which presently contributes 22% of the global carbon dioxide emissions. This book provides a source of information, stimuli and incentives for what and how new and energy efficient technologies can be applied as effective tools and solutions in agricultural production to satisfy the continually increasing demand for food and fibre in an economically sustainable way, while contributing to global climate change mitigation. It will be useful and inspiring to decision makers working in different authorities, professionals, agricultural engineers, researchers, and students concerned with agriculture and related primay industries, sustainable energy development and climate change mitigation projects.

Carbon Neutral Fuels and Energy Carriers

Author: Nazim Z. Muradov
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1439818584
Format: PDF, ePub
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Concerns over an unstable energy supply and the adverse environmental impact of carbonaceous fuels have triggered considerable efforts worldwide to find carbon-free or low-carbon alternatives to conventional fossil fuels. Carbon-Neutral Fuels and Energy Carriers emphasizes the vital role of carbon-neutral energy sources, transportation fuels, and associated technologies for establishing a sustainable energy future. Each chapter draws on the insight of world-renowned experts in such diverse fields as photochemistry and electrochemistry, solar and nuclear energy, biofuels and synthetic fuels, carbon sequestration, and alternative fuel vehicles. After an introductory chapter on different energy options in a carbon-constrained world and proposed measures to stabilize atmospheric CO2, the book analyzes the advantages and challenges facing the introduction of hydrogen fuel to the marketplace. It then examines the role of nuclear power in the production of carbon-free energy and fuels as well as the efficient use and storage of renewable energy resources, emphasizing the production of solar fuels from water and CO2. The book also discusses different aspects of bioenergy and biofuels production and use and the potential role of bio-inspired energy systems and industrial processes. The final chapters present a thorough overview and analysis of state-of-the-art fossil fuel decarbonization technologies and clean transportation options. This authoritative work provides the information needed to make more informed choices regarding available clean energy and fuel alternatives. It helps readers to better understand the interconnection between energy and the environment as well as the potential impact of human activities on climate.

Geothermal Energy and Society

Author: Adele Manzella
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 331978286X
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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This book addresses the societal aspects of harnessing geothermal resources for different uses, such as power production, heating and cooling. It introduces a theoretical framework for a social scientific approach to the field, and presents a preliminary collection of empirical case studies on geothermal energy and society from across the world. By providing a conceptual and methodological framework to the study of geothermal energy and societies, it brings together information and analyses in the field that to date have been sparse and fragmented. The contributors explore the diverse aspects of the relationship between the harnessing of geothermal resources and the societies and local communities in which these developments take place. After introducing geothermal technologies, renewable energy concepts as well as their social and policy context and the regulative and environmental aspects of geothermal energy, the book analyzes and discusses twelve global case studies, and compares the social engagement tools applied with those used in other sectors. Of interest to researchers from a range of disciplines who wish to explore the issues surrounding energy and society, it is also a valuable resource for geothermal experts and postgraduate students wish to study the field in greater detail.

Handbook of Alternate Energy

Author: Dr. Prabhas Chandra Sinha
ISBN: 9789380090030
Format: PDF, ePub
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This is a complete sourcebook on the subject of alternative energy. An introduction to alternative and renewable energy is provided with focus on energy development, co-processing, distributed generation, virtual power plant, country-wise electricity production from renewable sources, and related case studies. Various sources, forms and concerns of alternative energy are covered, including that of energy fuel. The capacity factor and environmental concerns with electricity generation are covered. The solar thermal energy and photovoltaic are discussed in detail. The third generation photovoltaic cell, nanoantenna, dye-sensitised solar cell and dye Sol are analysed. Solar energy technology and companies are described, with select case studies. The subject areas of hydropower and hydroelectric energy are covered with special focus on types of hydropower plants, history of hydropower development, types of hydropower turbines, mobile hydricity and run-of-the-river hydroelectricity. The advantages and disadvantages of hydropower are explained. The select national patterns in geothermal energy and power are discussed with case studies of Australia, China, Iceland, New Zealand, United Kingdom, Portugal, Turkey and the USA. An overview of bioenergy and biomass is provided giving the case studies China and New Zealand biomass programmes. An introductory overview of biofuel energy and road to sustainable biofuel is discussed. The food bioenergy crops such as jatropha curcas, Chinese tallow, hemp, maize, sorghum bicolor, soybean, stover, straw, sugarcane and sunflower are described. Similarly the non-food bioenergy crops such as miscanthus giganteus, panicum virgatum, etc are discussed. The various bioenergy technologies, such as, bioconversion of biomass to mixed alcohol fuels; biomass heating systems; biorefinery; industrial biotechnology; pellet mill; pellet stove, thermal depolymerization and cellulosic ethanol commercialisation are highlighted. The energy from wind power and wind turbines are covered with highlights on wind farms, wind generators, wind turbines, laddermills, vertical axis wind turbines, darrieus wind turbines, quiet revolution wind turbines, windstar turbines, savonius wind turbines, turby wind turbines, floating wind turbines and unconventional wind turbines. The regional and national potentials of global wind power are outlined with case studies of Asia, the European Union, the United Kingdom, the United States, Turkey, Sweden, Spain, Romania, Portugal, Pakistan, Gharo, New Zealand, India, Morocco, Italy, the Republic of Ireland, Iran, Greece, Germany, France, Finland, Estonia, Denmark, China, Canada, Brazil, Austria, and Australia. An overview of systems related to ocean and marine energy are covered. The ocean wave energy and power are discussed with case study of Autonomous Powerbuoy tidal energy and power resources are analysed with focus on methods of converting tidal energy into electricity. The case studies of India, Garorim Bay, Kislaya Guba, Rance, Sagen and Severn Barrage are made. Also, the ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) is discussed in detail. Similarly, the ocean salinity gradient energy is described with case studies of Blue Energy Canada Inc. and the Davis HydroTurbine. The ocean current energy and other ocean energy and power sources are also covered in brief, such as, offshore wind energy; deep-water-supported mariculture; offshore solar energy; and deep sea mineral extraction. This handbook also makes an effort towards creating an understanding of the significance of energy efficiency program and impact evaluation w.r.t alternative energy. Attempts are made towards gross and net energy and demand savings calculations; avoided air emissions calculation and impact evaluation planning; other evaluation types and renewables and combined heat and power project measurement and verification systems. The handbook is user-friendly and future research oriented.