Glutamate and ATP at the Interface of Metabolism and Signaling in the Brain

Author: Vladimir Parpura
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319088947
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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ATP acts as main energy source and is pivotal for numerous signaling cascades both inside the cells (by fuelling various transport systems and donating phosphate groups) and between the cells (by chemical transmission). Similarly glutamate acts as an important molecule for both intercellular signaling though glutamatergic transmission and cell energetics by contributing to ATP production. In this collection of chapters, written by the leading experts in the field of cell metabolism and energetics, intracellular signaling and neurotransmission we covered various aspects of the interfacing between these two fundamental molecules. This book will be particularly useful for researchers, students, physicians and psychotherapists working in the field of neurobiology, neurology and psychiatry.

Obesity and Brain Function

Author: Liliana Letra
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319632604
Format: PDF, Docs
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This compendium provides a wide view covering everything from molecular mechanisms and risk factors for neurological disorders to the effects of bariatric surgery on brain function and functional neuroimaging applied to obesity research. The impact of obesity on brain function and the development of neurodegenerative and neuroinflammatory disorders has been understudied, despite the recent proliferation of obesity research. Among the topics covered are adipose biology, the adipose tissue - gut - brain axis, brain energy metabolism, dementia, cerebrovascular disease, and multiple sclerosis.

The Benefits of Natural Products for Neurodegenerative Diseases

Author: M. Mohamed Essa
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319283839
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Focuses on the effects of natural products and their active components on brain function and neurodegenerative disease prevention. Phytochemicals such as alkaloids, terpenes, flavanoids, isoflavones, saponins etc are known to possess protective activity against many neurological diseases. The molecular mechanisms behind the curative effects rely mainly on the action of phytonutrients on distinct signaling pathways associated with protein folding and neuro-inflammation. The diverse array of bioactive nutrients present in these natural products plays a pivotal role in prevention and cure of various neurodegenerative diseases, disorders, or insults, such as Alzheimer's Disease, Parkinson's Disease, Huntington's Disease, traumatic brain injury, and other neuronal dysfunctions. However, the use of these antioxidants in the management of neurodegenerative conditions has so far been not well understood. This is a comprehensive collection addressing the effects on the brain of natural products and edible items such as reservatrol, curcumin, gingerol, fruits, vegetables, nuts, and marine products.

Fundamental Neuroscience

Author: Larry R. Squire
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 0123858704
Format: PDF, Docs
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Fundamental Neuroscience, 3rd Edition introduces graduate and upper-level undergraduate students to the full range of contemporary neuroscience. Addressing instructor and student feedback on the previous edition, all of the chapters are rewritten to make this book more concise and student-friendly than ever before. Each chapter is once again heavily illustrated and provides clinical boxes describing experiments, disorders, and methodological approaches and concepts. A companion web site contains test questions, and an imagebank of the figures for ready use in presentations, slides, and handouts. Capturing the promise and excitement of this fast-moving field, Fundamental Neuroscience, 3rd Edition is the text that students will be able to reference throughout their neuroscience careers! New to this edition: * 30% new material including new chapters on Dendritic Development and Spine Morphogenesis, Chemical Senses, Cerebellum, Eye Movements, Circadian Timing, Sleep and Dreaming, and Consciousness * Companion website with figures, web links to additional material, and test questions * Additional text boxes describing key experiments, disorders, methods, and concepts * Multiple model system coverage beyond rats, mice, and monkeys * Extensively expanded index for easier referencing

Neural Metabolism In Vivo

Author: In-Young Choi
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1461417880
Format: PDF, Kindle
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From the preface: “Neural Metabolism In Vivo aims to provide a comprehensive overview of neurobiology by presenting the basic principles of up-to-date and cutting-edge technology, as well as their application in assessing the functional, morphological and metabolic aspects of the brain. Investigation of neural activity of the living brain via neurovascular coupling using multimodal imaging techniques extended our understanding of fundamental neurophysiological mechanisms, regulation of cerebral blood flow in connection to neural activity and the interplay between neurons, astrocytes and blood vessels. Constant delivery of glucose and oxygen for energy metabolism is vital for brain function, and the physiological basis of neural activity can be assessed through measurements of cerebral blood flow and consumption of glucose and oxygen.... This book presents the complex physiological and neurochemical processes of neural metabolism and function in response to various physiological conditions and pharmacological stimulations. Neurochemical detection technologies and quantitative aspects of monitoring cerebral energy substrates and other metabolites in the living brain are described under the “Cerebral metabolism of antioxidants, osmolytes and others in vivo” section. Altogether, the advent of new in vivo tools has transformed neuroscience and neurobiology research, and demands interdisciplinary approaches as each technology could only approximate a very small fraction of the true complexity of the underlying biological processes. However, translational values of the emerging in vivo methods to the application of preclinical to clinical studies cannot be emphasized enough. Thus, it is our hope that advances in our understanding of biochemical, molecular, functional and physiological processes of the brain could eventually help people with neurological problems, which are still dominated by the unknowns.” -- In-Young Choi and Rolf Gruetter

Brain Computer Interfaces

Author: Jonathan Wolpaw
Publisher: OUP USA
ISBN: 0195388852
Format: PDF
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In the last 15 years, a recognizable surge in the field of Brain Computer Interface (BCI) research and development has emerged. This emergence has sprung from a variety of factors. For one, inexpensive computer hardware and software is now available and can support the complex high-speed analyses of brain activity that is essential is BCI. Another factor is the greater understanding of the central nervous system including the abundance of new information on the nature and functional correlates of brain signals and improved methods for recording these signals in both the short-term and long-term. And the third, and perhaps most significant factor, is the new recognition of the needs and abilities of people disabled by disorders such as cerebral palsy, spinal cord injury, stroke, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), multiple sclerosis, and muscular dystrophies. The severely disabled are now able to live for many years and even those with severely limited voluntary muscle control can now be given the most basic means of communication and control because of the recent advances in the technology, research, and applications of BCI. This book is intended to provide an introduction to and summary of essentially all major aspects of BCI research and development. Its goal is to be a comprehensive, balanced, and coordinated presentation of the field's key principles, current practice, and future prospects.

Neurotoxicity of Metals

Author: Michael Aschner
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 331960189X
Format: PDF
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Assembles international authorities to address contemporary research in metal neurotoxicity. Essential and non-essential metals play an important role in neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative diseases. Recent developments in understanding the role of metals in the etiology of these disorders have led to rapid growth in clarifying the pathology of some of the most devastating diseases we face and in identifying potential new therapies. Few books or periodicals have been wholly dedicated to the topic of metals, and this collection is intended to serve as a resource for all researchers interested in metals and their role in health and disease.

Glial Neurobiology

Author: Alexei Verkhratsky
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 9780470513071
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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"This volume is a very valuable and much needed contribution." –Quarterly Review of Biology AT LAST - A comprehensive, accessible textbook on glial neurobiology! Glial cells are the most numerous cells in the human brain but for many years have attracted little scientific attention. Neurophysiologists concentrated their research efforts instead, on neurones and neuronal networks because it was thought that they were the key elements responsible for higher brain function. Recent advances, however, indicate this isn’t exactly the case. Not only are astroglial cells the stem elements from which neurones are born, but they also control the development, functional activity and death of neuronal circuits. These ground-breaking developments have revolutionized our understanding of the human brain and the complex interrelationship of glial and neuronal networks in health and disease. Features of this book: an accessible introduction to glial neurobiology including an overview of glial cell function and its active role in neural processes, brain function and nervous system pathology an exploration of all the major types of glial cells including: the astrocytes, oligodendrocytes and microglia of the ACNS and Schwann cells of the peripheral nervous system; the book also presents a broad overview of glial receptors and ion channels an investigation into the role of glial cells in various types of brain diseases including stroke, neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's and Alexander's disease, brain oedema, multiple sclerosis and many more a wealth of illustrations, including unique images from the authors' own libraries of images, describing the main features of glial cells Written by two leading experts in the field, Glial Neurobiology provides a concise, authoritative introduction to glial physiology and pathology for undergraduate/postgraduate neuroscience, biomedical, medical, pharmacy, pharmacology, and neurology, neurosurgery and physiology students. It is also an invaluable resource for researchers in neuroscience, physiology, pharmacology and pharmaceutics.

Functional Plasticity and Genetic Variation

Author:
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 9780123812773
Format: PDF
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With recent advances of modern medicine more people reach the 'elderly age' around the globe and the number of dementia cases are ever increasing. This book is about various aspects of dementia and provides its readers with a wide range of thought-provoking sub-topics in the field of dementia. The ultimate goal of this monograph is to stimulate other physicians' and neuroscientists' interest to carry out more research projects into pathogenesis of this devastating group of diseases.

Perinatal Programming of Neurodevelopment

Author: Marta Antonelli
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 1493913727
Format: PDF, ePub
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The development of the brain and nervous system is shaped not just by a genetic program, but also by the effects of multiple environmental stimuli. There are currently no book-length treatments of perinatal neurodevelopment. The proposed book seeks to fill this gap by presenting a collection of chapters from leading experts in the field. It is intended to be comprehensive and will cover all aspects of neurodevelopmental programming in lab animals and in human subjects. The third section of the book will look at ways of translating insights we have garnered from animal studies to human and clinical studies. The primary audience for this work is basic researchers interested in the effects of perinatal imprinting on the development of the nervous system and associated diseases.