GMPLS Technologies

Author: Naoaki Yamanaka
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1420027786
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Multi-Protocol Label Switch (MPLS) and Generalized MPLS (GMPLS) are key technologies for next-generation IP backbone networks. Until now, however, engineers have been forced to search for technical papers on this subject and read them in an ad-hoc manner. At last there is a book that explains both MPLS and GMPLS concepts in a systematic way. GMPLS Technologies: Broadband Backbone Networks and Systems addresses the basic concepts, network architectures, protocols, and traffic engineering needed to operate MPLS and GMPLS networks. The book begins with an introduction of the nature and requirements of broadband networks. It describes the basics of control-oriented networks and Internet Protocol (IP). The text then examines the fundamentals of MPLS, explaining why MPLS is preferable to IP packet-based forwarding. This volume covers MPLS applications, details IP router structures, illustrates GMPLS, and explores important studies on traffic engineering in GMPLS Networks. The text concludes with a description of IP, MPLS, and GMPLS standardization topics. Network equipment design engineers and network service provision engineers can reference this book to understand the crucial techniques for building MPLS/GMPLS-based networks. Features Addresses the basic concepts, network architectures, protocols, and traffic engineering needed to operate MPLS and GMPLS networks Covers the fundamentals of connection-oriented networks including TCP/IP, flow control mechanism, and ATM protocol Analyzes MPLS issues and applications, such as label switched paths (LSPs) and VPNs Highlights IP router structures, examining technologies of data path function - switch architecture, packet scheduling, and forwarding engine Explores multi-layer traffic engineering, survivable networks, and wavelength-routed optical networks Demonstrates GMPLS-based routers

Microlithography

Author: Bruce W. Smith
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9781420051537
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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This new edition of the bestselling Microlithography: Science and Technology provides a balanced treatment of theoretical and operational considerations, from elementary concepts to advanced aspects of modern submicron microlithography. Each chapter reflects the current research and practices from the world's leading academic and industrial laboratories detailed by a stellar panel of international experts. New in the Second Edition In addition to updated information on existing material, this new edition features coverage of technologies developed over the last decade since the first edition appeared, including: Immersion Lithography 157nm Lithography Electron Projection Lithography (EPL) Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) Lithography Imprint Lithography Photoresists for 193nm and Immersion Lithography Scatterometry Microlithography: Science and Technology, Second Edition authoritatively covers the physics, chemistry, optics, metrology tools and techniques, resist processing and materials, and fabrication methods involved in the latest generations of microlithography such as immersion lithography and extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography. It also looks ahead to the possible future systems and technologies that will bring the next generations to fruition. Loaded with illustrations, equations, tables, and time-saving references to the most current literature, this book is the most comprehensive and reliable source for anyone, from student to seasoned professional, looking to achieve robust, accurate, and cost-effective microlithography processes and systems.

Smart Biosensor Technology

Author: George K. Knopf
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1420019503
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Synergy is the key to creating more intelligent biosensors. Engineers develop smaller, more integrated technologies; biologists and chemists develop increasingly selective and sensitive sensor elements; material scientists develop ways to bring it all together. However, most books focus only on the chemistry aspects of biosensor technologies. With a multidisciplinary perspective, Smart Biosensor Technology examines the design, applications, and future directions of this rapidly evolving field. This book collects contributions from leading specialists in a variety of scientific and engineering disciplines involved in different aspects of biosensor design and technology. Five broad sections provide a systematic structure that builds progressively from key concepts to emerging technologies and future directions. Following an introduction to the fundamental characteristics and functions of the underlying technologies, two sections explore the role materials play in developing smart biosensors. Next, the editors devote an entire section to bioelectronics with a focus on a biophotonic material called bacteriorhodopsin and its application to photoelectric biosensing, chemical sensing, and color imaging. They also present design and fabrication of new bioelectronic sensing arrays on flexible substrates. The final section explores a variety of smart biosensor applications in detecting food pathogens, monitoring toxicity, and detecting allergens and viruses. Building a solid background in the underlying technologies and demonstrating how to apply this knowledge to solve real problems, Smart Biosensor Technology is a comprehensive, interdisciplinary guide to extending the capabilities of biosensors for a broad range of fields.

Optical Inspection of Microsystems

Author: Wolfgang Osten
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9781420019162
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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Where conventional testing and inspection techniques fail at the micro-scale, optical techniques provide a fast, robust, and relatively inexpensive alternative for investigating the properties and quality of microsystems. Speed, reliability, and cost are critical factors in the continued scale-up of microsystems technology across many industries, and optical techniques are in a unique position to satisfy modern commercial and industrial demands. Optical Inspection of Microsystems is the first comprehensive, up-to-date survey of the most important and widely used full-field optical metrology and inspection technologies. Under the guidance of accomplished researcher Wolfgang Osten, expert contributors from industrial and academic institutions around the world share their expertise and experience with techniques such as image correlation, light scattering, scanning probe microscopy, confocal microscopy, fringe projection, grid and moiré techniques, interference microscopy, laser Doppler vibrometry, holography, speckle metrology, and spectroscopy. They also examine modern approaches to data acquisition and processing. The book emphasizes the evaluation of various properties to increase reliability and promote a consistent approach to optical testing. Numerous practical examples and illustrations reinforce the concepts. Supplying advanced tools for microsystem manufacturing and characterization, Optical Inspection of Microsystems enables you to reach toward a higher level of quality and reliability in modern micro-scale applications.

Physical Properties and Data of Optical Materials

Author: Moriaki Wakaki
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9781420015508
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Research and applications in optical engineering require careful selection of materials. With such a large and varied array to choose from, it is important to understand a material's physical and optical properties before making a selection. Providing a convenient, concise, and logically organized collection of information, Physical Properties and Data of Optical Materials builds a thorough background for more than 100 optical materials and offers quick access to precise information. Surveying the most important and widely used optical materials, this handy reference includes data on a wide variety of metals, semiconductors, dielectrics, polymers, and other commonly used optical materials. For each material, the editors examine the crystal system; natural and artificial growth and production methods along with corrosives and processing; thermal, electrical, and mechanical properties; optical properties, such as transmittance and reflectance spectra, ranging from UV to IR wavelengths; and, where applicable, applications for spectroscopy and miscellaneous remarks such as handling concerns and chemical properties. Numerous tables illustrate important data such as numerical values of optical constants for important wavelength regions, extinction and absorption coefficients, and refractive index. Physical Properties and Data of Optical Materials offers a collection of data on an unprecedented variety of fundamental optical materials, making it the one quick-lookup guide that every optical scientist, engineer, and student should own.

Gas Lasers

Author: Masamori Endo
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9781420018806
Format: PDF
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Lasers with a gaseous active medium offer high flexibility, wide tunability, and advantages in cost, beam quality, and power scalability. Gas lasers have tended to become overshadowed by the recent popularity and proliferation of semiconductor lasers. As a result of this shift in focus, details on modern developments in gas lasers are difficult to find. In addition, different types of gas lasers have unique properties that are not well-described in other references. Collecting expert contributions from authorities dealing with specific types of lasers, Gas Lasers examines the fundamentals, current research, and applications of this important class of laser. It is important to understand all types of lasers, from solid-state to gaseous, before making a decision for any application. This book fills in the gaps by discussing the definition and properties of gaseous media along with its fluid dynamics, electric excitation circuits, and optical resonators. From this foundation, the discussion launches into the basic physics, characteristics, applications, and current research efforts for specific types of gas lasers: CO lasers, CO2 lasers, HF/DF lasers, excimer lasers, iodine lasers, and metal vapor lasers. The final chapter discusses miscellaneous lasers not covered in the previous chapters. Collecting hard-to-find material into a single, convenient source, Gas Lasers offers an encyclopedic survey that helps you approach new applications with a more complete inventory of laser options.

Linear Programming and Algorithms for Communication Networks

Author: Eiji Oki
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1466552638
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Explaining how to apply to mathematical programming to network design and control, Linear Programming and Algorithms for Communication Networks: A Practical Guide to Network Design, Control, and Management fills the gap between mathematical programming theory and its implementation in communication networks. From the basics all the way through to more advanced concepts, its comprehensive coverage provides readers with a solid foundation in mathematical programming for communication networks. Addressing optimization problems for communication networks, including the shortest path problem, max flow problem, and minimum-cost flow problem, the book covers the fundamentals of linear programming and integer linear programming required to address a wide range of problems. It also: Examines several problems on finding disjoint paths for reliable communications Addresses optimization problems in optical wavelength-routed networks Describes several routing strategies for maximizing network utilization for various traffic-demand models Considers routing problems in Internet Protocol (IP) networks Presents mathematical puzzles that can be tackled by integer linear programming (ILP) Using the GNU Linear Programming Kit (GLPK) package, which is designed for solving linear programming and mixed integer programming problems, it explains typical problems and provides solutions for communication networks. The book provides algorithms for these problems as well as helpful examples with demonstrations. Once you gain an understanding of how to solve LP problems for communication networks using the GLPK descriptions in this book, you will also be able to easily apply your knowledge to other solvers.

Optical Switching Networks

Author: Martin Maier
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1139469991
Format: PDF
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Optical Switching Networks describes all the major switching paradigms developed for modern optical networks, discussing their operation, advantages, disadvantages and implementation. Following a review of the evolution of optical WDM networks, an overview of the future trends out. The latest developments in optical access, local, metropolitan, and wide area networks are covered, including detailed technical descriptions of generalized multiprotocol label switching, waveband switching, photonic slot routing, optical flow, burst and packet switching. The convergence of optical and wireless access networks is also discussed, as are the IEEE 802.17 Resilient Packet Ring and IEEE 802.3ah Ethernet passive optical network standards and their WDM upgraded derivatives. The feasibility, challenges and potential of next-generation optical networks are described in a survey of state-of-the-art optical networking testbeds. Animations showing how the key optical switching techniques work are available via the web, as are lecture slides (www.cambridge.org/9780521868006).

Optical WDM Networks

Author: Biswanath Mukherjee
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 0387291881
Format: PDF, ePub
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Research and development on optical wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM) networks have matured considerably. While optics and electronics should be used appropriately for transmission and switching hardware, note that "intelligence'' in any network comes from "software,'' for network control, management, signaling, traffic engineering, network planning, etc.The role of software in creating powerful network architectures for optical WDM networks is emphasized. Optical WDM Networks is a textbook for graduate level courses. Its focus is on the networking aspects of optical networking, but it also includes coverage of physical layers in optical networks. The author introduces WDM and its enabling technologies and discusses WDM local, access, metro, and long-haul network architectures. Each chapter is self-contained, has problems at the end of each chapter, and the material is organized for self study as well as classroom use. The material is the most recent and timely in capturing the state-of-the-art in the fast-moving field of optical WDM networking.

Next Generation Transport Networks

Author: Manohar Naidu Ellanti
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 0387240683
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Covering past, present and future transport networks using three layered planes written by experts in the field. Targeted at both practitioners and academics as a single source to get an understanding of how transport networks are built and operated Explains technologies enabling the next generation transport networks