GMPLS Technologies

Author: Naoaki Yamanaka
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1420027786
Format: PDF, ePub
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Multi-Protocol Label Switch (MPLS) and Generalized MPLS (GMPLS) are key technologies for next-generation IP backbone networks. Until now, however, engineers have been forced to search for technical papers on this subject and read them in an ad-hoc manner. At last there is a book that explains both MPLS and GMPLS concepts in a systematic way. GMPLS Technologies: Broadband Backbone Networks and Systems addresses the basic concepts, network architectures, protocols, and traffic engineering needed to operate MPLS and GMPLS networks. The book begins with an introduction of the nature and requirements of broadband networks. It describes the basics of control-oriented networks and Internet Protocol (IP). The text then examines the fundamentals of MPLS, explaining why MPLS is preferable to IP packet-based forwarding. This volume covers MPLS applications, details IP router structures, illustrates GMPLS, and explores important studies on traffic engineering in GMPLS Networks. The text concludes with a description of IP, MPLS, and GMPLS standardization topics. Network equipment design engineers and network service provision engineers can reference this book to understand the crucial techniques for building MPLS/GMPLS-based networks. Features Addresses the basic concepts, network architectures, protocols, and traffic engineering needed to operate MPLS and GMPLS networks Covers the fundamentals of connection-oriented networks including TCP/IP, flow control mechanism, and ATM protocol Analyzes MPLS issues and applications, such as label switched paths (LSPs) and VPNs Highlights IP router structures, examining technologies of data path function - switch architecture, packet scheduling, and forwarding engine Explores multi-layer traffic engineering, survivable networks, and wavelength-routed optical networks Demonstrates GMPLS-based routers

Slow Light

Author: Jacob B. Khurgin
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9781420061529
Format: PDF, Kindle
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One of the Top Selling Physics Books according to YBP Library Services The exotic effects of slow light have been widely observed in the laboratory. However, current literature fails to explore the wider field of slow light in photonic structures and optical fibers. Reflecting recent research, Slow Light: Science and Applications presents a comprehensive introduction to slow light and its potential applications, including storage, switching, DOD applications, and nonlinear optics. The book covers fundamentals of slow light in various media, including atomic media, semiconductors, fibers, and photonic structures. Leading authorities in such diverse fields as atomic vapor spectroscopy, fiber amplifiers, and integrated optics provide an interdisciplinary perspective. They uncover potential applications in both linear and nonlinear optics. While it is impossible to account for all the captivating developments that have occurred in the last few years, this book provides an exceptional survey of the current state of the slow light field.

Optical Inspection of Microsystems

Author: Wolfgang Osten
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9781420019162
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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Where conventional testing and inspection techniques fail at the micro-scale, optical techniques provide a fast, robust, and relatively inexpensive alternative for investigating the properties and quality of microsystems. Speed, reliability, and cost are critical factors in the continued scale-up of microsystems technology across many industries, and optical techniques are in a unique position to satisfy modern commercial and industrial demands. Optical Inspection of Microsystems is the first comprehensive, up-to-date survey of the most important and widely used full-field optical metrology and inspection technologies. Under the guidance of accomplished researcher Wolfgang Osten, expert contributors from industrial and academic institutions around the world share their expertise and experience with techniques such as image correlation, light scattering, scanning probe microscopy, confocal microscopy, fringe projection, grid and moiré techniques, interference microscopy, laser Doppler vibrometry, holography, speckle metrology, and spectroscopy. They also examine modern approaches to data acquisition and processing. The book emphasizes the evaluation of various properties to increase reliability and promote a consistent approach to optical testing. Numerous practical examples and illustrations reinforce the concepts. Supplying advanced tools for microsystem manufacturing and characterization, Optical Inspection of Microsystems enables you to reach toward a higher level of quality and reliability in modern micro-scale applications.

Physical Properties and Data of Optical Materials

Author: Moriaki Wakaki
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9781420015508
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Research and applications in optical engineering require careful selection of materials. With such a large and varied array to choose from, it is important to understand a material's physical and optical properties before making a selection. Providing a convenient, concise, and logically organized collection of information, Physical Properties and Data of Optical Materials builds a thorough background for more than 100 optical materials and offers quick access to precise information. Surveying the most important and widely used optical materials, this handy reference includes data on a wide variety of metals, semiconductors, dielectrics, polymers, and other commonly used optical materials. For each material, the editors examine the crystal system; natural and artificial growth and production methods along with corrosives and processing; thermal, electrical, and mechanical properties; optical properties, such as transmittance and reflectance spectra, ranging from UV to IR wavelengths; and, where applicable, applications for spectroscopy and miscellaneous remarks such as handling concerns and chemical properties. Numerous tables illustrate important data such as numerical values of optical constants for important wavelength regions, extinction and absorption coefficients, and refractive index. Physical Properties and Data of Optical Materials offers a collection of data on an unprecedented variety of fundamental optical materials, making it the one quick-lookup guide that every optical scientist, engineer, and student should own.

Microlithography

Author: Bruce W. Smith
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9781420051537
Format: PDF, Kindle
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This new edition of the bestselling Microlithography: Science and Technology provides a balanced treatment of theoretical and operational considerations, from elementary concepts to advanced aspects of modern submicron microlithography. Each chapter reflects the current research and practices from the world's leading academic and industrial laboratories detailed by a stellar panel of international experts. New in the Second Edition In addition to updated information on existing material, this new edition features coverage of technologies developed over the last decade since the first edition appeared, including: Immersion Lithography 157nm Lithography Electron Projection Lithography (EPL) Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) Lithography Imprint Lithography Photoresists for 193nm and Immersion Lithography Scatterometry Microlithography: Science and Technology, Second Edition authoritatively covers the physics, chemistry, optics, metrology tools and techniques, resist processing and materials, and fabrication methods involved in the latest generations of microlithography such as immersion lithography and extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography. It also looks ahead to the possible future systems and technologies that will bring the next generations to fruition. Loaded with illustrations, equations, tables, and time-saving references to the most current literature, this book is the most comprehensive and reliable source for anyone, from student to seasoned professional, looking to achieve robust, accurate, and cost-effective microlithography processes and systems.

Gas Lasers

Author: Masamori Endo
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9781420018806
Format: PDF, Docs
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Lasers with a gaseous active medium offer high flexibility, wide tunability, and advantages in cost, beam quality, and power scalability. Gas lasers have tended to become overshadowed by the recent popularity and proliferation of semiconductor lasers. As a result of this shift in focus, details on modern developments in gas lasers are difficult to find. In addition, different types of gas lasers have unique properties that are not well-described in other references. Collecting expert contributions from authorities dealing with specific types of lasers, Gas Lasers examines the fundamentals, current research, and applications of this important class of laser. It is important to understand all types of lasers, from solid-state to gaseous, before making a decision for any application. This book fills in the gaps by discussing the definition and properties of gaseous media along with its fluid dynamics, electric excitation circuits, and optical resonators. From this foundation, the discussion launches into the basic physics, characteristics, applications, and current research efforts for specific types of gas lasers: CO lasers, CO2 lasers, HF/DF lasers, excimer lasers, iodine lasers, and metal vapor lasers. The final chapter discusses miscellaneous lasers not covered in the previous chapters. Collecting hard-to-find material into a single, convenient source, Gas Lasers offers an encyclopedic survey that helps you approach new applications with a more complete inventory of laser options.

Smart CMOS Image Sensors and Applications

Author: Jun Ohta
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9781420019155
Format: PDF
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Because of their high noise immunity and low static power supply drain, complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) devices produce less heat than other forms of logic and allow a high density of logic functions on a chip. These beneficial characteristics have fueled the use of CMOS image sensors in consumer electronics, robot vision, biotechnology, and medicine. With the introduction of smart functions in CMOS image sensors, even more versatile applications are now possible. Exploring this popular technology, Smart CMOS Image Sensors and Applications focuses on the smart functions implemented in CMOS image sensors as well as the applications of these sensors. After discussing the history of smart CMOS image sensors, the book describes the fundamental elements of CMOS image sensors. It covers some optoelectronic device physics and introduces typical CMOS image sensor structures, such as an active pixel sensor (APS). Subsequent chapters elucidate the functions and materials of smart CMOS image sensors and present examples of smart imaging. The final chapter explores various applications of smart CMOS image sensors. Several appendices supply a range of information on constants, illuminance, MOSFET characteristics, and optical resolution. This book provides a firm foundation in existing smart CMOS image sensor technology and applications, preparing you for the next phase of smart CMOS image sensors.

Next Generation Transport Networks

Author: Manohar Naidu Ellanti
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 0387240683
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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Covering past, present and future transport networks using three layered planes written by experts in the field. Targeted at both practitioners and academics as a single source to get an understanding of how transport networks are built and operated Explains technologies enabling the next generation transport networks