Gnotobiotic Mouse Technology

Author: Chriss J. Vowles
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1498736335
Format: PDF, Kindle
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The popularity of germ-free animal models, particularly mice, for investigation of human physiology and disease has recently exploded. Gnotobiotic Mouse Technology: An Illustrated Guide provides the first manual for the maintenance, husbandry, and experimental manipulation of germ-free and gnotobiotic mice. It includes information on all aspects of establishing and operating a germ-free mouse research facility, from basic principles and equipment to detailed instructions for assembling and maintaining isolators, sterilizing supplies, handling animals, and monitoring sterility. The book breaks down techniques and procedures into modules, each of which contains a step-by-step practical and visual guide to a set of related procedures. Each description consists of a materials list, introduction, and general overview, followed by a thoroughly illustrated walkthrough of the steps for each procedure. The descriptions end with troubleshooting tips. Technical chapters are heavily illustrated and include notations of potential pitfalls and alternatives. Other chapters discuss management procedures and practices such as the hiring and training of personnel, setting fee schedules, and record keeping. This book is a landmark resource for establishing and maintaining a facility for germ-free mouse research. Useful to both technicians and investigators, it presents every step necessary to establish a successful facility. It also gives direction in expanding multi-user facilities and applying new technologies to your current practices.

Animal Models for Microbiome Research

Author: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine
Publisher: National Academies Press
ISBN: 0309463912
Format: PDF, Docs
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The surface of the human body and its mucous membranes are heavily colonized by microorganisms. Our understanding of the contributions that complex microbial communities make to health and disease is advancing rapidly. Most microbiome research to date has focused on the mouse as a model organism for delineating the mechanisms that shape the assembly and dynamic operations of microbial communities. However, the mouse is not a perfect surrogate for studying different aspects of the microbiome and how it responds to various environmental and host stimuli, and as a result, researchers have been conducting microbiome studies in other animals. To examine the different animal models researchers employ in microbiome studies and to better understand the strengths and weaknesses of each of these model organisms as they relate to human and nonhuman health and disease, the Roundtable on Science and Welfare in Laboratory Animal Use of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine convened a workshop in December 2016. The workshop participants explored how to improve the depth and breadth of analysis of microbial communities using various model organisms, the challenges of standardization and biological variability that are inherent in gnotobiotic animal-based research, the predictability and translatability of preclinical studies to humans, and strategies for expanding the infrastructure and tools for conducting studies in these types of models. This publication summarizes the presentations and discussions from the workshop.

Gnotobiotics

Author: Trenton R Schoeb
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 0128045833
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Gnotobiotics summarizes and analyzes the research conducted on the use of gnotobiotes, providing detailed information regarding actual facility operation and derivation of gnotobiotic animals. In response to the development of new tools for microbiota and microbiome analysis, the increasing recognition of the various roles of microbiota in health and disease, and the consequent expanding demand for gnotobiotic animals for microbiota/microbiome related research, this volume collates the research of this expanding field into one definitive resource. Reviews and defines gnotobiotic animal species Analyzes microbiota in numerous contexts Presents detailed coverage of the protocols and operation of a gnotobiotic facility

The Gut Microbiome in Health and Disease

Author: Dirk Haller
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319905457
Format: PDF, Docs
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The book provides an overview on how the gut microbiome contributes to human health. The readers will get profound knowledge on the connection between intestinal microbiota and immune defense systems. The tools of choice to study the ecology of these highly-specialized microorganism communities such as high-throughput sequencing and metagenomic mining will be presented. In addition the most common diseases associated to the composition of the gut flora are discussed in detail. The book will address researchers, clinicians and advanced students working in biomedicine, microbiology and immunology.

Laboratory Animal Medicine

Author: Lynn C. Anderson
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 012416613X
Format: PDF, ePub
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Laboratory Animal Medicine, Third Edition, is a fully revised publication from the American College of Laboratory Medicine’s acclaimed blue book series. It presents an up-to-date volume that offers the most thorough coverage of the biology, health, and care of laboratory animals. The book is organized by species, with new inclusions of chinchillas, birds, and program and employee management, and is written and edited by known experts in the fields. Users will find gold-standard guidance on the study of laboratory animal science, as well as valuable information that applies across all of the biological and biomedical sciences that work with animals. Organized by species for in-depth understanding of biology, health, and best care of animals Features the inclusion of chinchillas, quail, and zebra finches as animal models Offers guidance on program and employee management Covers regulations, policies, and laws for laboratory animal management worldwide

Handbook for Chemical Process Research and Development

Author: Wenyi Zhao
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1315350203
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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The Handbook for Chemical Process Research and Development focuses on developing processes for chemical and pharmaceutical industries. Forty years ago there were few process research and development activities in the pharmaceutical industry, partially due to the simplicity of the drug molecules. However, with the increasing structural complexity, especially the introduction of chiral centers into the drug molecules and strict regulations set by the EMA and FDA, process R&D has become one of the critical departments for pharmaceutical companies. This book assists with the key responsibility of process chemists to develop chemical processes for manufacturing pharmaceutical intermediates and final drug substances for clinical studies and commercial production.

Small Animal Imaging

Author: Fabian Kiessling
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319422022
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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This textbook is a practical guide to the use of small animal imaging in preclinical research that will assist in the choice of imaging modality and contrast agent and in study design, experimental setup, and data evaluation. All established imaging modalities are discussed in detail, with the assistance of numerous informative illustrations. While the focus of the new edition remains on practical basics, it has been updated to encompass a variety of emerging imaging modalities, methods, and applications. Additional useful hints are also supplied on the installation of a small animal unit, study planning, animal handling, and cost-effective performance of small animal imaging. Cross-calibration methods and data postprocessing are considered in depth. This new edition of Small Animal Imaging will be an invaluable aid for researchers, students, and technicians involved in research into and applications of small animal imaging.

Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals

Author: Committee for the Update of the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals
Publisher: National Academies Press
ISBN: 0309154006
Format: PDF, Kindle
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A respected resource for decades, the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals has been updated by a committee of experts, taking into consideration input from the scientific and laboratory animal communities and the public at large. The Guide incorporates new scientific information on common laboratory animals, including aquatic species, and includes extensive references. It is organized around major components of animal use: Key concepts of animal care and use. The Guide sets the framework for the humane care and use of laboratory animals. Animal care and use program. The Guide discusses the concept of a broad Program of Animal Care and Use, including roles and responsibilities of the Institutional Official, Attending Veterinarian and the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee. Animal environment, husbandry, and management. A chapter on this topic is now divided into sections on terrestrial and aquatic animals and provides recommendations for housing and environment, husbandry, behavioral and population management, and more. Veterinary care. The Guide discusses veterinary care and the responsibilities of the Attending Veterinarian. It includes recommendations on animal procurement and transportation, preventive medicine (including animal biosecurity), and clinical care and management. The Guide addresses distress and pain recognition and relief, and issues surrounding euthanasia. Physical plant. The Guide identifies design issues, providing construction guidelines for functional areas; considerations such as drainage, vibration and noise control, and environmental monitoring; and specialized facilities for animal housing and research needs. The Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals provides a framework for the judgments required in the management of animal facilities. This updated and expanded resource of proven value will be important to scientists and researchers, veterinarians, animal care personnel, facilities managers, institutional administrators, policy makers involved in research issues, and animal welfare advocates.

Handbook of Dietary and Nutritional Aspects of Human Breast Milk

Author: Sherma Zibadi
Publisher: Wageningen Academic Pub
ISBN: 9086862098
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Breast feeding has a great impact on the growth of infants both physically and psychologically. Human breast milk is beneficial to infant health because it contains the necessary macro- and micro-nutrients for tissue accretion, repair and behavioural developments. The production of milk is a complex biological process and its composition and volume is dependent upon a variety of factors such as the health and dietary status of the mother. Moreover, it is influenced by the different stages and duration of breast feeding. Environmental factors, both global and local, may also alter lactation, milk composition and nutritional value. This handbook provides a unique and complete insight into the dietary and nutritional aspects of human breast milk. For a general understanding an overview is given of breast structure and function and lactation. Nutritional aspects are highlighted in a section on the composition of breast milk, including recent research results on breast milk and growth factors, vitamins, proteins and antigens, amongst others. Finally an analysis of both the beneficial and adverse factors relating to lactation and composition of breast milk are discussed.

The New Science of Metagenomics

Author: Committee on Metagenomics: Challenges and Functional Applications
Publisher: National Academies Press
ISBN: 0309106761
Format: PDF, Docs
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Although we can't usually see them, microbes are essential for every part of human life -- indeed all life on Earth. The emerging field of metagenomics offers a new way of exploring the microbial world that will transform modern microbiology and lead to practical applications in medicine, agriculture, alternative energy, environmental remediation, and many others areas. Metagenomics allows researchers to look at the genomes of all of the microbes in an environment at once, providing a "meta" view of the whole microbial community and the complex interactions within it. It's a quantum leap beyond traditional research techniques that rely on studying -- one at a time -- the few microbes that can be grown in the laboratory. At the request of the National Science Foundation, five Institutes of the National Institutes of Health, and the Department of Energy, the National Research Council organized a committee to address the current state of metagenomics and identify obstacles current researchers are facing in order to determine how to best support the field and encourage its success. The New Science of Metagenomics recommends the establishment of a "Global Metagenomics Initiative" comprising a small number of large-scale metagenomics projects as well as many medium- and small-scale projects to advance the technology and develop the standard practices needed to advance the field. The report also addresses database needs, methodological challenges, and the importance of interdisciplinary collaboration in supporting this new field.