Graphene in Spintronics

Author: Junichiro Inoue
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9814669571
Format: PDF, ePub
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The discovery and fabrication of new materials have opened the gate for new research fields in science and technology. The novel method of fabricating graphene, a purely 2D carbon lattice, and the discovery of the phenomenon of giant magnetoresistance (GMR) in magnetic multilayers are not exceptions. The latter has brought about the creation of the new technological field of spintronics, which utilizes both spin and charge degrees of freedom of electrons. As for the former, many applications have been proposed; however, no practical devices have yet been developed in the field of spintronics. The aim of this book is to provide possible hints to overcome the difficulties in graphene applications in the field of spintronics by comparing the physical properties of graphene and magnetoresistive (MR) phenomena in spintronics. The book will be useful for advanced undergraduate students and graduate students of physics, chemistry, and materials science and young researchers in nanotechnology and the field of spintronics.

Spintronic 2D Materials

Author: Wenqing Liu
Publisher: Woodhead Publishing
ISBN: 0081021550
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Spintronic 2D Materials: Fundamentals and Applications provides an overview of the fundamental theory of 2D electronic systems that includes a selection of the most intensively investigated 2D materials. The book tells the story of 2D spintronics in a systematic and comprehensive way, providing the growing community of spintronics researchers with a key reference. Part One addresses the fundamental theoretical aspects of 2D materials and spin transport, while Parts Two through Four explore 2D material systems, including graphene, topological insulators, and transition metal dichalcogenides. Each section discusses properties, key issues and recent developments. In addition, the material growth method (from lab to mass production), device fabrication and characterization techniques are included throughout the book. Discusses the fundamentals and applications of spintronics of 2D materials, such as graphene, topological insulators and transition metal dichalcogenides Includes an in-depth look at each materials system, from material growth, device fabrication and characterization techniques Presents the latest solutions on key challenges, such as the spin lifetime of 2D materials, spin-injection efficiency, the potential proximity effects, and much more

Graphene and Its Fascinating Attributes

Author: Swapan K. Pati
Publisher: World Scientific
ISBN: 9814329355
Format: PDF
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Graphene, a single sheet of graphite, has an unconventional electronic structure that can be described in terms of massless Dirac Fermions. This book presents the frontiers of graphene research ranging from important issues in condensed matter physics and chemistry to advanced device applications.

Graphene

Author: Mikhail I. Katsnelson
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 0521195403
Format: PDF
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An important introduction to graphene, its physics and potentially significant applications, for graduate students, physicists and materials science researchers.

Graphene

Author: Jamie H. Warner
Publisher: Newnes
ISBN: 0123948274
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Providing fundamental knowledge necessary to understand graphene’s atomic structure, band-structure, unique properties and an overview of groundbreaking current and emergent applications, this new handbook is essential reading for materials scientists, chemists and physicists. Since the 2010 physics Nobel Prize awarded to Geim and Novosolev for their groundbreaking work isolating graphene from bulk graphite, there has been a huge surge in interest in the area. This has led to a large number of news books on graphene. However, for such a vast inflow of new entrants, the current literature is surprisingly slight, focusing exclusively on current research or books on previous "hot topic" allotropes of carbon. This book covers fundamental groundwork of the structure, property, characterization methods and applications of graphene, along with providing the necessary knowledge of graphene’s atomic structure, how it relates to its band-structure and how this in turn leads to the amazing properties of graphene. And so it provides new graduate students and post-docs with a resource that equips them with the knowledge to undertake their research. Discusses graphene’s fundamental structure and properties, acting as a time-saving handbook for validated research Demonstrates 100+ high-quality graphical representations, providing the reader with clear images to convey complex situations Reviews characterization techniques relevant to grapheme, equipping the reader with experimental knowledge relevant for practical use rather than just theoretical understanding

Handbook of Spin Transport and Magnetism

Author: Evgeny Y. Tsymbal
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1439803781
Format: PDF, ePub
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In the past several decades, the research on spin transport and magnetism has led to remarkable scientific and technological breakthroughs, including Albert Fert and Peter Grünberg’s Nobel Prize-winning discovery of giant magnetoresistance (GMR) in magnetic metallic multilayers. Handbook of Spin Transport and Magnetism provides a comprehensive, balanced account of the state of the art in the field known as spin electronics or spintronics. It reveals how key phenomena first discovered in one class of materials, such as spin injection in metals, have been revisited decades later in other materials systems, including silicon, organic semiconductors, carbon nanotubes, graphene, and carefully engineered nanostructures. The first section of the book offers a historical and personal perspective of the field written by Nobel Prize laureate Albert Fert. The second section addresses physical phenomena, such as GMR, in hybrid structures of ferromagnetic and normal metals. The third section discusses recent developments in spin-dependent tunneling, including magnetic tunnel junctions with ferroelectric barriers. In the fourth section, the contributors look at how to control spin and magnetism in semiconductors. In the fifth section, they examine phenomena typically found in nanostructures made from metals, superconductors, molecular magnets, carbon nanotubes, quantum dots, and graphene. The final section covers novel spin-based applications, including advanced magnetic sensors, nonvolatile magnetoresistive random access memory, and semiconductor spin-lasers. The techniques and materials of spintronics have rapidly evolved in recent years, leading to vast improvements in hard drive storage and magnetic sensing. With extensive cross-references between chapters, this seminal handbook provides a complete guide to spin transport and magnetism across various classes of materials and structures.

Introduction to Spintronics

Author: Supriyo Bandyopadhyay
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1420004743
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Using spin to replace or augment the role of charge in signal processing devices, computing systems and circuits may improve speed, power consumption, and device density in some cases—making the study of spinone of the fastest-growing areas in micro- and nanoelectronics. With most of the literature on the subject still highly advanced and heavily theoretical, the demand for a practical introduction to the concepts relating to spin has only now been filled. Explains effects such as giant magnetoresistance, the subject of the 2007 Nobel Prize in physics Introduction to Spintronics is an accessible, organized, and progressive presentation of the quantum mechanical concept of spin. The authors build a foundation of principles and equations underlying the physics, transport, and dynamics of spin in solid state systems. They explain the use of spin for encoding qubits in quantum logic processors; clarify how spin-orbit interaction forms the basis for certain spin-based devices such as spintronic field effect transistors; and discuss the effects of magnetic fields on spin-based device performance. Covers active hybrid spintronic devices, monolithic spintronic devices, passive spintronic devices, and devices based on the giant magnetoresistance effect The final chapters introduce the burgeoning field of spin-based reversible logic gates, spintronic embodiments of quantum computers, and other topics in quantum mechanics that have applications in spintronics. An Introduction to Spintronics provides the knowledge and understanding of the field needed to conduct independent research in spintronics.

Handbook of Spintronics

Author: Yongbing Xu
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9789400768932
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Over two volumes and 1500 pages, the Handbook of Spintronics will cover all aspects of spintronics science and technology, including fundamental physics, materials properties and processing, established and emerging device technology and applications. Comprising 60 chapters from a large international team of leading researchers across academia and industry, the Handbook provides readers with an up-to-date and comprehensive review of this dynamic field of research. The opening chapters focus on the fundamental physical principles of spintronics in metals and semiconductors, including an introduction to spin quantum computing. Materials systems are then considered, with sections on metallic thin films and multilayers, magnetic tunnelling structures, hybrids, magnetic semiconductors and molecular spintronic materials. A separate section reviews the various characterisation methods appropriate to spintronics materials, including STM, spin-polarised photoemission, x-ray diffraction techniques and spin-polarised SEM. The third part of the Handbook contains chapters on the state of the art in device technology and applications, including spin valves, GMR and MTJ devices, MRAM technology, spin transistors and spin logic devices, spin torque devices, spin pumping and spin dynamics and other topics such as spin caloritronics. Each chapter considers the challenges faced by researchers in that area and contains some indications of the direction that future work in the field is likely to take. This reference work will be an essential and long-standing resource for the spintronics community.

Spintronics in Nanoscale Devices

Author: Eric R. Hedin
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9814411701
Format: PDF, Docs
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By exploiting the novel properties of quantum dots and nanoscale Aharonov–Bohm rings together with the electronic and magnetic properties of various semiconductor materials and graphene, researchers have conducted numerous theoretical and computational modeling studies and experimental tests that show promising behavior for spintronics applications. Spin polarization and spin-filtering capabilities and the ability to manipulate the electron spin state through external magnetic or electric fields have demonstrated the promise of workable nanoscale devices for computing and memory applications. This book provides researchers investigating this cutting-edge field with detailed background descriptions of spin-based effects and devices and their theoretical analysis in nanoelectronic circuits.

Graphene

Author: Serhii Shafraniuk
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9814613487
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Graphene is the first example of two-dimensional materials and is the most important growth area of contemporary research. It forms the basis for new nanoelectronic applications. Graphene, which comprises field-effect structures, has remarkable physical properties. This book focuses on practical applications determined by the unique properties of graphene. Basic concepts are elucidated by end-of-chapter problems, the answers to which are provided in the accompanying solutions manual. The mechanisms of electric and thermal transport in the gated graphene, interface phenomena, quantum dots, non-equilibrium states, scattering and dissipation, as well as coherent transport in graphene junctions are considered in detail in the book. Detailed analyses and comparison between theory and experiments is complemented with a variety of practical examples. The book has evolved from the author’s own research experience and from his interaction with other scientists at tertiary institutions and is targeted at a wide audience ranging from graduate students and postdoctoral fellows to mature researchers and industrial engineers.