Grasses and Grassland Ecology

Author: David J. Gibson
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 019852918X
Format: PDF
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Grasses and Grassland Ecology provides an ecologically orientated introduction to this influential group of plants, summarizing the most recent scientific research in ecology and agriculture in the context of the older, classic literature. Ten chapters cover the morphology, anatomy, physiology and systematics of grasses, their population, community and ecosystem ecology, their global distribution, and the effects of disturbanceand grassland management.

The Biology of Grasslands

Author: Brian Wilsey
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0191061948
Format: PDF, Mobi
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This accessible text provides a concise but comprehensive introduction to the biology of global grasslands. Grasslands are vast in their extent, with native and non-native grasslands now covering approximately 50% of the global terrestrial environment. They are also of vital importance to humans, providing essential ecosystem services and some of the most important areas for the production of food and fibre worldwide. It has been estimated that 60% of calories consumed by humans originate from grasses, and most grain consumed is produced in areas that were formerly grasslands or wetlands. Grasslands are also important because they are used to raise forage for livestock, represent a source of biofuels, sequester vast amounts of carbon, provide urban green-space, and hold vast amounts of biodiversity. Intact grasslands contain an incredibly fascinating set of plants, animals, and microbes that have interested several generations of biologists, generating pivotal studies to important theoretical questions in ecology. As with other titles in the Biology of Habitats Series, the emphasis is on the organisms that dominate this environment although restoration, conservation, and experimental aspects are also considered.

Grassland Invertebrate Interactions Plant Productivity Resilience and Community Dynamics

Author: Ivan Hiltpold
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
ISBN: 2889452905
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Natural and anthropogenic grasslands such as prairies, meadows, rangelands, and pastures cover more than 40% of the planet’s surface and provide a wealth of ecological services. Grasslands alone store one third of the global carbon stocks and grass roots, through their specific architectures, ensure water cycling and prevent the erosion of fertile topsoil. In addition, grasslands are of vital importance for human food production as vast areas of rangelands and pastures provide feed for livestock. Pastoral legumes mobilize atmospheric nitrogen and improve fertility of arable soils. Not least, grasslands are an essential genetic resource. The three major crop species that feed half of the global population have been bred from wild grasses. Ancestors of our contemporary turf cultivars, common components of urban landscapes and recreation spaces, originated from wild grasslands. Although natural and managed grasslands represent pivotal ecosystems, many aspects of how they function are poorly understood. To date, most attention has focused on grassland primary producers (i.e. forage plants) and mammalian grazers but invertebrates are likely to play an equally, if not more important role in grassland ecosystem functioning. In Australian pastures, for example, the biomass of root-feeding scarab beetles can often exceed that of sheep and plant damage caused by invertebrates is sometimes equivalent to an average dairy cow’s grass consumption. Indeed, grasslands are one of the most densely populated ecosystems with invertebrates being probably the most important engineers that shape both plant communities and the grassland as a whole. In a rapidly changing world with increasing anthropogenic pressure on grasslands, this Research Topic focuses on: 1. How grassland habitats shape invertebrate biodiversity 2. Impacts of climate change on grassland-invertebrate interactions 3. Plant and invertebrate pest monitoring and management 4. Plant-mediated multitrophic interactions and biological control in grasslands 5. Land use and grassland invertebrates 6. Plant resistance to invertebrate pests Given the increasing demand for food and land for human habitation, unprecedented threats to grasslands are anticipated. Resilient to some extent, these key ecosystems need to be better comprehended to guarantee their sustainable management and ecosystem services.

Grassland Management

Author: Victor Roy Squires
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1351652206
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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Grasslands are an important biome, expanding world-wide with grass-dominated communities in deserts, woodlands and alpine areas above the tree-line. This book explores the exploitation of grasslands from the earliest time to the present and examines the impact of recent human interventions and global warming on their productivity, diversity, and survival. The challenges of conserving biodiversity, maintaining livelihoods of land users while protecting the land, and ensuring sustainable use are highlighted.

Routledge Handbook of Ecological and Environmental Restoration

Author: Stuart K. Allison
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
ISBN: 131741375X
Format: PDF
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Ecological restoration is a rapidly evolving discipline that is engaged with developing both methodologies and strategies for repairing damaged and polluted ecosystems and environments. During the last decade the rapid pace of climate change coupled with continuing habitat destruction and the spread of non-native species to new habitats has forced restoration ecologists to re-evaluate their goals and the methods they use. This comprehensive handbook brings together an internationally respected group of established and rising experts in the field. The book begins with a description of current practices and the state of knowledge in particular areas of restoration, and then identifies new directions that will help the field achieve increasing levels of future success. Part I provides basic background about ecological and environmental restoration. Part II systematically reviews restoration in key ecosystem types located throughout the world. In Part III, management and policy issues are examined in detail, offering the first comprehensive treatment of policy relevance in the field, while Part IV looks to the future. Ultimately, good ecological restoration depends upon a combination of good science, policy, planning and outreach – all issues that are addressed in this unrivalled volume.

Methods in Comparative Plant Population Ecology

Author: David Gibson
Publisher: OUP Oxford
ISBN: 0191651230
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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The field of plant population ecology has advanced considerably in the last decade since the first edition was published. In particular there have been substantial and ongoing advances in statistics and modelling applications in population ecology, as well as an explosion of new techniques reflecting the availability of new technologies (e.g. affordable and accurate Global Positioning Systems) and advances in molecular biology. This new edition has been updated and revised with more recent examples replacing older ones where appropriate. The book's trademark question-driven approach has been maintained and some important topics such as the metapopulation concept which are missing entirely from the current edition are now included throughout the text.

Invasion Biology

Author: Mark A. Davis
Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand
ISBN: 0199218757
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Invasion Biology provides a comprehensive and up-to-date review of the science of biological invasions while also offering new insights and perspectives relating to the processes of introduction, establishment, and spread. The book connects science with application by describing the health, economic, and ecological impacts of invasive species as well as the variety of management strategies developed to mitigate harmful impacts.The author critically evaluates the approaches, findings, and controversies that have characterized invasion biology in recent years, and suggests a variety of future research directions. Carefully balanced to avoid distincttaxonomic, ecosystem, and geographic (both investigator and species) biases, the book addresses a wide range of invasive species (including protists, invertebrates, vertebrates, fungi, and plants) which have been studied in marine, freshwater, and terrestrial environments throughout the world by investigators equally diverse in their origins.

The Changing prairie

Author: Anthony Joern
Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA
ISBN:
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Grasslands have figured prominently in our North American heritage. Prairies first provided significant barriers to westward expansion, then offered both economic and sociological opportunity, as well as heartache, for settlers. Many artists have gained significant inspiration from the beauty as well as the harshness of these regions and its biota. And, because of ideal climate and soil conditions, these grasslands have provided the agricultural foundation upon which much of the growth and stability of the United States economy rests. Yet, many see North America prairies as beautiful only when manipulated or exploited--green croplands or manicured park lawns are attractive, whereas native grasslands are "those ugly weeds." In the past, plowing virgin prairie could be easily defended on both economic and sociological grounds. And historically, North American prairies must have seemed threatening in both their wildness and vastness. But preservation of these prairies is now an urgent need. This book describes the ecology of the North American prairie and urges conservation measures to protect the remaining North American grasslands. It provides non-economic arguments for the value of prairies, presents a current synthesis of prairie ecology to facilitate the best possible management, and deftly summarizes conservation and management issues, pointing out the costs and benefits of alternative actions. By approaching its subject from a variety of perspectives, including ethical and aesthetic considerations, the book will appeal to environmentalists and conservationists as well as to ecologists, botanists, and conservation biologists.

The Biology of Soil

Author: Richard Bardgett
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 9780198525035
Format: PDF
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Soil science has undergone a renaissance with increasing awareness of the importance of soil organisms & below-ground biotic interactions as drivers of community & ecosystem properties.

Monitoring for Conservation and Ecology

Author: F.B. Goldsmith
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9401130868
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Monitoring has become fashionable. Business now talks about monitoring its activities, efficiency, costs and profits. The National Health Service is monitoring general practices and hospitals; it is keen to have more information about efficiency and the duration of stay of patients in different hospitals undergoing different types of treatment. These activities are usually carried out in relation to specific objectives with the aim of making activities more cost effective and competitive. Does the same apply in biology, ecology and nature conservation? Or, are we still enjoying conducting field surveys for the fun of it, at best with rather vague objectives and saying to our colleagues that we do our work because we need to know what is there? This book is an opportunity to consider some of the reasons why monitoring is important, how it differs from survey, how it may be able to answer specific questions and help with site management or problem solving. It will explore some of the taxa that are suitable for recording and how you may actually set about doing it. It is not intended as a catalogue of techniques but we will in each chapter give you sources of material so that with the minimum of effort you will be able to proceed with an efficient, relevant and not too time consuming monitoring programme. Some of the points that you need to consider before starting are also set down in the synthesis at the end of the book.