Handbook of Advanced Plasma Processing Techniques

Author: R.J. Shul
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3642569897
Format: PDF, Docs
Download Now
Pattern transfer by dry etching and plasma-enhanced chemical vapor de position are two of the cornerstone techniques for modern integrated cir cuit fabrication. The success of these methods has also sparked interest in their application to other techniques, such as surface-micromachined sen sors, read/write heads for data storage and magnetic random access memory (MRAM). The extremely complex chemistry and physics of plasmas and their interactions with the exposed surfaces of semiconductors and other materi als is often overlooked at the manufacturing stage. In this case, the process is optimized by an informed "trial-and-error" approach which relies heavily on design-of-experiment techniques and the intuition of the process engineer. The need for regular cleaning of plasma reactors to remove built-up reaction or precursor gas products adds an extra degree of complexity because the interaction of the reactive species in the plasma with the reactor walls can also have a strong effect on the number of these species available for etching or deposition. Since the microelectronics industry depends on having high process yields at each step of the fabrication process, it is imperative that a full understanding of plasma etching and deposition techniques be achieved.

Handbook of Silicon Wafer Cleaning Technology

Author: Karen Reinhardt
Publisher: William Andrew
ISBN: 032351085X
Format: PDF, Mobi
Download Now
Handbook of Silicon Wafer Cleaning Technology, Third Edition, provides an in-depth discussion of cleaning, etching and surface conditioning for semiconductor applications. The fundamental physics and chemistry associated with wet and plasma processing are reviewed, including surface and colloidal aspects. This revised edition includes the developments of the last ten years to accommodate a continually involving industry, addressing new technologies and materials, such as germanium and III-V compound semiconductors, and reviewing the various techniques and methods for cleaning and surface conditioning. Chapters include numerous examples of cleaning technique and their results. The book helps the reader understand the process they are using for their cleaning application and why the selected process works. For example, discussion of the mechanism and physics of contamination, metal, particle and organic includes information on particle removal, metal passivation, hydrogen-terminated silicon and other processes that engineers experience in their working environment. In addition, the handbook assists the reader in understanding analytical methods for evaluating contamination. The book is arranged in an order that segments the various cleaning techniques, aqueous and dry processing. Sections include theory, chemistry and physics first, then go into detail for the various methods of cleaning, specifically particle removal and metal removal, amongst others. Focuses on cleaning techniques including wet, plasma and other surface conditioning techniques used to manufacture integrated circuits Reliable reference for anyone that manufactures integrated circuits or supplies the semiconductor and microelectronics industries Covers processes and equipment, as well as new materials and changes required for the surface conditioning process

Handbook of Physical Vapor Deposition PVD Processing

Author: D. M. Mattox
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9780080946580
Format: PDF, Kindle
Download Now
This book covers all aspects of physical vapor deposition (PVD) process technology from the characterizing and preparing the substrate material, through deposition processing and film characterization, to post-deposition processing. The emphasis of the book is on the aspects of the process flow that are critical to economical deposition of films that can meet the required performance specifications. The book covers subjects seldom treated in the literature: substrate characterization, adhesion, cleaning and the processing. The book also covers the widely discussed subjects of vacuum technology and the fundamentals of individual deposition processes. However, the author uniquely relates these topics to the practical issues that arise in PVD processing, such as contamination control and film growth effects, which are also rarely discussed in the literature. In bringing these subjects together in one book, the reader can understand the interrelationship between various aspects of the film deposition processing and the resulting film properties. The author draws upon his long experience with developing PVD processes and troubleshooting the processes in the manufacturing environment, to provide useful hints for not only avoiding problems, but also for solving problems when they arise. He uses actual experiences, called ""war stories,"" to emphasize certain points. Special formatting of the text allows a reader who is already knowledgeable in the subject to scan through a section and find discussions that are of particular interest. The author has tried to make the subject index as useful as possible so that the reader can rapidly go to sections of particular interest. Extensive references allow the reader to pursue subjects in greater detail if desired. The book is intended to be both an introduction for those who are new to the field and a valuable resource to those already in the field. The discussion of transferring technology between R&D and manufacturing provided in Appendix 1, will be of special interest to the manager or engineer responsible for moving a PVD product and process from R&D into production. Appendix 2 has an extensive listing of periodical publications and professional societies that relate to PVD processing. The extensive Glossary of Terms and Acronyms provided in Appendix 3 will be of particular use to students and to those not fully conversant with the terminology of PVD processing or with the English language.

Semiconductor Manufacturing Handbook

Author: Hwaiyu Geng
Publisher: McGraw-Hill Education
ISBN: 9781259587696
Format: PDF, Docs
Download Now
Fully updated, state-of-the-art semiconductor design and manufacturing information This fully updated handbook provides cutting-edge technologies and state-of-the-art processes needed to design and fabricate IC chips, MEMS, sensors, and other electronic devices. The book lays out the electronics fundamentals and techniques that are required to understand and accelerate the pace of innovation. Semiconductor Manufacturing Handbook, Second Edition consolidates many complex engineering and manufacturing disciplines into one volume, enabling the quick look up of specific reference data. Readers will get complete details on semiconductor fundamentals and basic materials, front-end of line processes, back-end of line processes, nanotechnology, MEMS, photovoltaics, gases and chemicals, and fab yield, operations and facilities. Covers the breadth and width of emerging technologies and manufacturing processes that enable big data, the Internet of Things, and smart manufacturing Fully explains global regulations and environmental requirements Written by 50 international experts and reviewed by a seasoned advisory board

MEMS Materials and Processes Handbook

Author: Reza Ghodssi
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9780387473185
Format: PDF, Kindle
Download Now
MEMs Materials and Processes Handbook" is a comprehensive reference for researchers searching for new materials, properties of known materials, or specific processes available for MEMS fabrication. The content is separated into distinct sections on "Materials" and "Processes". The extensive Material Selection Guide" and a "Material Database" guides the reader through the selection of appropriate materials for the required task at hand. The "Processes" section of the book is organized as a catalog of various microfabrication processes, each with a brief introduction to the technology, as well as examples of common uses in MEMs.

Handbook of Advanced Radioactive Waste Conditioning Technologies

Author: Michael I Ojovan
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 085709095X
Format: PDF, ePub
Download Now
Radioactive wastes are generated from a wide range of sources, including the power industry, and medical and scientific research institutions, presenting a range of challenges in dealing with a diverse set of radionuclides of varying concentrations. Conditioning technologies are essential for the encapsulation and immobilisation of these radioactive wastes, forming the initial engineered barrier required for their transportation, storage and disposal. The need to ensure the long term performance of radioactive waste forms is a key driver of the development of advanced conditioning technologies. The Handbook of advanced radioactive waste conditioning technologies provides a comprehensive and systematic reference on the various options available and under development for the treatment and immobilisation of radioactive wastes. The book opens with an introductory chapter on radioactive waste characterisation and selection of conditioning technologies. Part one reviews the main radioactive waste treatment processes and conditioning technologies, including volume reduction techniques such as compaction, incineration and plasma treatment, as well as encapsulation methods such as cementation, calcination and vitrification. This coverage is extended in part two, with in-depth reviews of the development of advanced materials for radioactive waste conditioning, including geopolymers, glass and ceramic matrices for nuclear waste immobilisation, and waste packages and containers for disposal. Finally, part three reviews the long-term performance assessment and knowledge management techniques applicable to both spent nuclear fuels and solid radioactive waste forms. With its distinguished international team of contributors, the Handbook of advanced radioactive waste conditioning technologies is a standard reference for all radioactive waste management professionals, radiochemists, academics and researchers involved in the development of the nuclear fuel cycle. Provides a comprehensive and systematic reference on the various options available and under development for the treatment and immobilisation of radioactive wastes Explores radioactive waste characterisation and selection of conditioning technologies including the development of advanced materials for radioactive waste conditioning Assesses the main radioactive waste treatment processes and conditioning technologies, including volume reduction techniques such as compaction

Nanoparticle Technology Handbook

Author: Makio Naito
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 9780080558028
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
Download Now
Nanoparticle technology, which handles the preparation, processing, application and characterisation of nanoparticles, is a new and revolutionary technology. It becomes the core of nanotechnology as an extension of the conventional Fine Particle / Powder Technology. Nanoparticle technology plays an important role in the implementation of nanotechnology in many engineering and industrial fields including electronic devices, advanced ceramics, new batteries, engineered catalysts, functional paint and ink, Drug Delivery System, biotechnology, etc.; and makes use of the unique properties of the nanoparticles which are completely different from those of the bulk materials. This new handbook is the first to explain complete aspects of nanoparticles with many application examples showing their advantages and advanced development. There are handbooks which briefly mention the nanosized particles or their related applications, but no handbook describing the complete aspects of nanoparticles has been published so far. The handbook elucidates of the basic properties of nanoparticles and various nanostructural materials with their characterisation methods in the first part. It also introduces more than 40 examples of practical and potential uses of nanoparticles in the later part dealing with applications. It is intended to give readers a clear picture of nanoparticles as well as new ideas or hints on their applications to create new materials or to improve the performance of the advanced functional materials developed with the nanoparticles. * Introduces all aspects of nanoparticle technology, from the fundamentals to applications. * Includes basic information on the preparation through to the characterization of nanoparticles from various viewpoints * Includes information on nanostructures, which play an important role in practical applications.

Plasma Technology for Hyperfunctional Surfaces

Author: Hubert Rauscher
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 9783527630462
Format: PDF, ePub
Download Now
Based on a project backed by the European Union, this is a must-have resource for researchers in industry and academia concerned with application-oriented plasma technology research. Clearly divided in three sections, the first part is dedicated to the fundamentals of plasma and offers information about scientific and theoretical plasma topics, plasma production, surface treatment process and characterization. The second section focuses on technological aspects and plasma process applications in textile, food packaging and biomedical sectors, while the final part is devoted to concerns about the environmental sustainability of plasma processes.

Low Pressure Plasmas and Microstructuring Technology

Author: Gerhard Franz
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3540858490
Format: PDF, Docs
Download Now
Over the last forty years, plasma supported processes have attracted ever - creasing interest, and now, all modern semiconductor devices undergo at least one plasma-involved processing step, starting from surface cleaning via coating to etching. In total, the range of the treated substrates covers some orders of magnitude: Trenches and linewidths of commercially available devices have - ready passed the boundary of 100 nm, decorative surface treatment will happen 2 in the mm range, and the upper limit is reached with surface protecting layers of windows which are coated with ?/4 layers against IR radiation. The rapid development of the semiconductor industry is inconceivable wi- outthegiantprogressintheplasmatechnology.Moore’slawisnotcarvedinto 1 stone, and not only the ITRS map is subject to change every ?ve years but also new branches develop and others mingle together. Moreover, the quality of conventional materials can be improved by plasma treatment:Cottonbecomesmorecrease-resistant,leathermoredurable,andthe shrinking of wool ?bers during the washing process can be signi?cantly reduced. To cut a long story short: More than 150 years after the discovery of the sputtering e?ect by Grove, plasma-based processes are about to spread out into new ?elds of research and application [1]—no wonder that the market for etching machines kept growing by an annual rate of 17 % up to the burst of the internet bubble, and it took only some years of recovery to continue the voyage [2].

Handbook of Liquids Assisted Laser Processing

Author: Arvi Kruusing
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 9780080555041
Format: PDF, Docs
Download Now
Laser processing of solid materials has been commonly performed in gas ambient. Having the workpiece immersed into liquid, having a liquid film on it, or soaking the material with liquid gives several advantages such as removal of the debris, lowering the heat load on the workpiece, and confining the vapour and plasma, resulting in higher shock pressure on the surface. Introduced in the 1980s, neutral liquids assisted laser processing (LALP) has proved to be advantageous in the cutting of heat-sensitive materials, shock peening of machine parts, cleaning of surfaces, fabrication of micro-optical components, and for generation of nanoparticles in liquids. The liquids used range from water through organic solvents to cryoliquids. The primary aim of Handbook of Liquids-Assisted Laser Processing is to present the essentials of previous research (tabulated data of experimental conditions and results), and help researchers develop new processing and diagnostics techniques (presenting data of liquids and a review of physical phenomena associated with LALP). Engineers can use the research results and technological innovation information to plan their materials processing tasks. Laser processing in liquids has been applied to a number of different tasks in various fields such as mechanical engineering, microengineering, chemistry, optics, and bioscience. A comprehensive glossary with definitions of the terms and explanations has been added. The book covers the use of chemically inert liquids under normal conditions. Laser chemical processing examples are presented for comparison only. First book in this rapidly growing field impacting mechanical and micro/nano-engineering Covers different kinds of liquid-assisted laser processing of a large variety of materials Covers lasers emitting from UV to IR with pulse lengths down to femtoseconds Reviews over 500 scientific articles and 300 inventions and tabulates their main features Gives a qualitative and quantitative description of the physical phenomena associated with LALP Tabulates 61 parameters for 100 liquids Glossary of over 200 terms and abbreviations