Handbook of Biofuels Production

Author: Rafael Luque
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 0857090496
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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In response to the global increase in the use of biofuels as substitute transportation fuels, advanced chemical, biochemical and thermochemical biofuels production routes are fast being developed. Research and development in this field is aimed at improving the quality and environmental impact of biofuels production, as well as the overall efficiency and output of biofuels production plants. The range of biofuels has also increased to supplement bioethanol and biodiesel production, with market developments leading to the increased production and utilisation of such biofuels as biosyngas, biohydrogen and biobutanol, among others. Handbook of biofuels production provides a comprehensive and systematic reference on the range of biomass conversion processes and technology. Part one reviews the key issues in the biofuels production chain, including feedstocks, sustainability assessment and policy development. Part two reviews chemical and biochemical conversion and in turn Part three reviews thermal and thermo-chemical conversion, with both sections detailing the wide range of processes and technologies applicable to the production of first, second and third generation biofuels. Finally, Part four reviews developments in the integration of biofuels production, including biorefineries and by-product valorisation, as well as the utilisation of biofuels in diesel engines. With its distinguished international team of contributors, Handbook of biofuels production is a standard reference for biofuels production engineers, industrial chemists and biochemists, plant scientists, academics and researchers in this area. A comprehensive and systematic reference on the range of biomass conversion processes and technologies Addresses the key issues in the biofuels production chain, including feedstocks, sustainability assessment and policy development Reviews chemical and bio-chemical conversion techniques as well as thermal and thermo-chemical conversion, detailing the range of processes and technologies applicable to biofuels production

Handbook of Small Modular Nuclear Reactors

Author: Mario D Carelli
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 0857098535
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Small modular reactors (SMRs) are an advanced, safe type of nuclear reactor technology that are suitable for small and medium sized applications including both power and heat generation. In particular, their use as individual units or in combination to scale-up capacity offer benefits in terms of siting, installation, operation, lifecycle and economics in comparison to the development of larger nuclear plant for centralised electricity power grids. Interest has increased in the research and development of SMRs for both developing countries as well as such additional cogeneration options as industrial/chemical process heat, desalination and district heating, and hydrogen production. This book reviews key issues in their development as well as international R&D in the field. Gives an overview of small modular reactor technology Reviews the design characteristics of integral pressurized water reactors and focuses on reactor core and fuel technologies, key reactor system components, instrumentation and control, human-system interfaces and safety Considers the economics, financing, licensing, construction methods and hybrid energy systems of small modular reactors Describes SMR development activities worldwide, and concludes with a discussion of how SMR deployment can contribute to the growth of developing countries

Advances in Biodiesel Production

Author: R Luque
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 0857095862
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Biodiesel is one of the main biofuels capable of substituting fossil fuel usage in compression ignition vehicles, and is used in a variety of fuel blends worldwide. First-generation biodiesel has been used in national markets for some time, with fuel quality standards in place for this purpose. There remain, however, several restrictions to sustainable and long term market development, which is influenced by many factors, including food vs. fuel pressures. The development of new generations of biodiesel, aimed at more sustainable and effective feedstock utilisation alongside improved production efficiency and fuel quality, is critical to the future both of this industry and of the continuing use of biodiesel fuels in transportation. This book provides a timely reference on the advances in the development of biodiesel fuels, production processes and technologies. Part one reviews the life cycle sustainability assessment and socio-economic and environmental policy issues associated with advanced biodiesel production, as well as feedstocks and fuel quality standards. This coverage is extended in Part two, with chapters focussing on the development of methods and catalysts essential to the improvement and optimisation of biodiesel production processes and technologies. With its distinguished editors and international team of contributors, Advances in biodiesel production a standard reference for chemical, biochemical and industrial process engineers, as well as scientists and researchers in this important field. Provides a timely reference on the advances in the development of biodiesel fuels, production processes and technologies Reviews the life cycle sustainability assessment and socio-economic and environmental policy issues associated with advanced biodiesel production, as well as feedstocks and fuel quality standards Discusses the development of methods and catalysts essential to the improvement and optimisation of biodiesel production processes and technologies

Biodiesel Science and Technology

Author: Jan C.J. Bart
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 1845697766
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Biodiesel production is a rapidly advancing field worldwide, with biodiesel fuel increasingly being used in compression ignition (diesel) engines. Biodiesel has been extensively studied and utilised in developed countries, and it is increasingly being introduced in developing countries, especially in regions with high potential for sustainable biodiesel production. Initial sections systematically review feedstock resources and vegetable oil formulations, including the economics of vegetable oil conversion to diesel fuel, with additional coverage of emerging energy crops for biodiesel production. Further sections review the transesterification process, including chemical (catalysis) and biochemical (biocatalysis) processes, with extended coverage of industrial process technology and control methods, and standards for biodiesel fuel quality assurance. Final chapters cover the sustainability, performance and environmental issues of biodiesel production, as well as routes to improve glycerol by-product usage and the development of next-generation products. Biodiesel science and technology: From soil to oil provides a comprehensive reference to fuel engineers, researchers and academics on the technological developments involved in improving biodiesel quality and production capacity that are crucial to the future of the industry. Evaluates biodiesel as a renewable energy source and documents global biodiesel development The outlook for biodiesel science and technology is presented exploring the challenges faced by the global diesel industry Reviews feedstock resources and vegetable oil formation including emerging crops and the agronomic potential of underexploited oil crops

Gasification for Synthetic Fuel Production

Author: R Luque
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 085709808X
Format: PDF
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Gasification involves the conversion of carbon sources without combustion to syngas, which can be used as a fuel itself or further processed to synthetic fuels. The technology provides a potentially more efficient means of energy generation than direct combustion. This book provides an overview of gasification science and engineering and the production of synthetic fuels by gasification from a variety of feedstocks. Part one introduces gasification, reviewing the scientific basis of the process and gasification engineering. Part two then addresses gasification and synthentic fuel production processes. Finally, chapters in part three outline the different applications of gasification, with chapters on the conversion of different types of feedstock. Examines the design of gasifiers, the preparation of feedstocks, and the economic, environmental and policy issues related to gasification Reviews gasification processes for liquid fuel production Outlines the different applications of gasification technology

Membrane Reactors for Energy Applications and Basic Chemical Production

Author: Angelo Basile
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 1782422277
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Membrane Reactors for Energy Applications and Basic Chemical Production presents a discussion of the increasing interest in membrane reactors that has emerged in recent years from both the scientific and industrial communities, in particular their usage for energy applications and basic chemical production. Part One of the text investigates membrane reactors for syngas and hydrogen production, while Part Two examines membrane reactors for other energy applications, including biodiesel and bioethanol production. The final section of the book reviews the use of membrane reactors in basic chemical production, including discussions of the use of MRs in ammonia production and the dehydrogenation of alkanes to alkenes. Provides comprehensive coverage of membrane reactors as presented by a world-renowned team of experts Includes discussions of the use of membrane reactors in ammonia production and the dehydrogenation of alkanes to alkenes Tackles the use of membrane reactors in syngas, hydrogen, and basic chemical production Keen focus placed on the industry, particularly in the use of membrane reactor technologies in energy

Environmental Remediation and Restoration of Contaminated Nuclear and Norm Sites

Author: L van Velzen
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 1782422382
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Nuclear sites become contaminated with radionuclides due to accidents and activities carried out without due consideration for the environment. Naturally-occurring radioactive materials (NORM) released by industrial processes such as coal power production and fertilizer manufacture may also require clean-up. Environmental remediation and restoration aim to reduce exposure to radiation from contaminated soil or groundwater. This book provides a comprehensive overview of this area. Part 1 provides an introduction to the different types of contaminated site and their characteristics. Part 2 addresses environmental restoration frameworks and processes. Part 3 then reviews different remediation techniques and methods of waste disposal. Explores types and characteristics of contaminated nuclear and NORM sites Provides an in depth guide to environmental restoration frameworks and processes including stakeholder involvement, risk assessment and cost-benefit analysis in the remediation and restoration of contaminated nuclear and NORM sites Offers coverage of remediation techniques and waste disposal from electrokinetic remediation to in situ and ex situ bioremediation of radionuclides contaminated soils

The Biogas Handbook

Author: Arthur Wellinger
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 0857097415
Format: PDF
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With pressure increasing to utilise wastes and residues effectively and sustainably, the production of biogas represents one of the most important routes towards reaching national and international renewable energy targets. The biogas handbook: Science, production and applications provides a comprehensive and systematic guide to the development and deployment of biogas supply chains and technology. Following a concise overview of biogas as an energy option, part one explores biomass resources and fundamental science and engineering of biogas production, including feedstock characterisation, storage and pre-treatment, and yield optimisation. Plant design, engineering, process optimisation and digestate utilisation are the focus of part two. Topics considered include the engineering and process control of biogas plants, methane emissions in biogas production, and biogas digestate quality, utilisation and land application. Finally, part three discusses international experience and best practice in biogas utilisation. Biogas cleaning and upgrading to biomethane, biomethane use as transport fuel and the generation of heat and power from biogas for stationery applications are all discussed. The book concludes with a review of market development and biomethane certification schemes. With its distinguished editors and international team of expert contributors, The biogas handbook: Science, production and applications is a practical reference to biogas technology for process engineers, manufacturers, industrial chemists and biochemists, scientists, researchers and academics working in this field. Provides a concise overview of biogas as an energy option Explores biomass resources for production Examines plant design and engineering and process optimisation

Handbook of Microalgal Bioprocess Engineering

Author: C. Lan
Publisher:
ISBN: 9780857094117
Format: PDF, Docs
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With the most efficiency photosynthetic machinery for solar energy capture and CO2 fixation at disposal, microalgae are the only biological species offering the potential for biofuel production for the replacement of fossil fuels globally. While these versatile green cellular bioreactors lend us the weaponry in fighting against the multiple crises facing the world today, it is the obligation of scientists and engineers to develop cost-effective processes to realize the biological potentials of microalgae. This book examines these methods.

Lebenslinien

Author: Wilhelm Ostwald
Publisher: BoD – Books on Demand
ISBN: 384302233X
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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Wilhelm Ostwald: Lebenslinien. Eine Selbstbiographie Erstdruck: Berlin (Klasing) 1926/1927. Vollständige Neuausgabe. Herausgegeben von Karl-Maria Guth. Berlin 2013. Textgrundlage ist die Ausgabe: Ostwald, Wilhelm: Lebenslinien. Eine Selbstbiographie, 3 Teile, Berlin: Klasing, 1926/1927. Die Paginierung obiger Ausgabe wird in dieser Neuausgabe als Marginalie zeilengenau mitgeführt. Umschlaggestaltung von Thomas Schultz-Overhage unter Verwendung des Bildes: Wilhelm Ostwald (1903). Gesetzt aus Minion Pro, 11 pt. Über den Autor: Neben dessen Gründer Ernst Haeckel war der Freimaurer und Chemie-Nobelpreisträger Wilhelm Ostwald einer der führenden Köpfe des Deutschen Monistenbundes, der eine wissenschaftlich begründbare Weltanschauung nach dem Prinzip der Einheit von Natur und Geist vertrat und dabei christlicher Dogmatik widersprach. Er schlug unter dem Namen »Weltdeutsch« ein vereinfachtes Deutsch als internationale Plansprache vor und setzte sich für ein Weltgeld ein. Nach Differenzen mit der Universität Leipzig legte er seinen Lehrstuhl nieder und lebte als Privatforscher bis zu seinem Lebensende 1932 auf seinem Landsitz in Großbothen.