Handbook of Individual Differences in Cognition

Author: Aleksandra Gruszka
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9781441912107
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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As cognitive models of behavior continue to evolve, the mechanics of cognitive exceptionality, with its range of individual variations in abilities and performance, remains a challenge to psychology. Reaching beyond the standard view of exceptional cognition equaling superior intelligence, the Handbook of Individual Differences in Cognition examines the latest findings from psychobiology, cognitive psychology, and neuroscience, for a comprehensive state-of-the-art volume. Breaking down cognition in terms of attentional mechanisms, working memory, and higher-order processing, contributors discuss general models of cognition and personality. Chapter authors build on this foundation as they revisit current theory in such areas as processing effort and general arousal and examine emerging methods in individual differences research, including new data on the role of brain plasticity in cognitive function. The possibility of a unified theory of individual differences in cognitive ability and the extent to which these variables may account for real-world competencies are emphasized, and commentary chapters offer suggestions for further research priorities. Coverage highlights include: The relationship between cognition and temperamental traits. The development of autobiographical memory. Anxiety and attentional control. The neurophysiology of gender differences in cognitive ability. Intelligence and cognitive control. Individual differences in dual task coordination. The effects of subclinical depression on attention, memory, and reasoning. Mood as a shaper of information. Researchers, clinicians, and graduate students in psychology and cognitive sciences, including clinical psychology and neuropsychology, personality and social psychology, neuroscience, and education, will find the Handbook of Individual Differences in Cognition an expert guide to the field as it currently stands and to its agenda for the future.

Handbook of Individual Differences in Cognition

Author: Aleksandra Gruszka
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9781441912091
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
Download Now
As cognitive models of behavior continue to evolve, the mechanics of cognitive exceptionality, with its range of individual variations in abilities and performance, remains a challenge to psychology. Reaching beyond the standard view of exceptional cognition equaling superior intelligence, the Handbook of Individual Differences in Cognition examines the latest findings from psychobiology, cognitive psychology, and neuroscience, for a comprehensive state-of-the-art volume. Breaking down cognition in terms of attentional mechanisms, working memory, and higher-order processing, contributors discuss general models of cognition and personality. Chapter authors build on this foundation as they revisit current theory in such areas as processing effort and general arousal and examine emerging methods in individual differences research, including new data on the role of brain plasticity in cognitive function. The possibility of a unified theory of individual differences in cognitive ability and the extent to which these variables may account for real-world competencies are emphasized, and commentary chapters offer suggestions for further research priorities. Coverage highlights include: The relationship between cognition and temperamental traits. The development of autobiographical memory. Anxiety and attentional control. The neurophysiology of gender differences in cognitive ability. Intelligence and cognitive control. Individual differences in dual task coordination. The effects of subclinical depression on attention, memory, and reasoning. Mood as a shaper of information. Researchers, clinicians, and graduate students in psychology and cognitive sciences, including clinical psychology and neuropsychology, personality and social psychology, neuroscience, and education, will find the Handbook of Individual Differences in Cognition an expert guide to the field as it currently stands and to its agenda for the future.

Case Studies in Applied Psychophysiology

Author: W. Alex Edmonds
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 0470971738
Format: PDF
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A thorough, readable primer for the practitioner and student, detailing case studies on the art and science of biofeedback and neurofeedback in practice. Includes case-study examples focusing directly on improving human performance in non-clinical populations utilizing biofeedback and neurofeedback techniques Links theory and practice for scholars and practitioners in the field Acknowledges both the art and science of utilizing these tools for performance-related gains in sports and artistic fields, presenting unique case studies detailing the variety of procedures used Offers comprehensive coverage of key topics and procedures in an emerging field

Neurobiology of Exceptionality

Author: Con Stough
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9780306486494
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Nurture or nature? Biology or environment? Why are some people intelligent, or personable, or creative and others obtuse, or shy, or unimaginative? Although each human being is a unique mixture of positive and negative traits and behaviors, the question remains: What is the neurobiological basis for each individual’s makeup? For example, why does one person suffer from a disorder (e.g., ADHD, autism, mental retardation) and another lives free of maladies? These are just some of the issues addressed in detail in Neurobiology of Exceptionality. The introductory chapter provides a broad-based overview of current neurobiological techniques (i.e., terms, procedures, and technologies), which are followed by chapters that offer in-depth examination of the neurobiological bases for: • Impulsive sensation seeking • Creativity • Intelligence • Antisociality • Autism, mental retardation, and Down Syndrome • ADHD • Savant Syndrome This volume provides a one-stop source for clinical psychologists and other allied mental health professionals to access information on a wide range of research on the neurobiology of psychological and psychiatric traits. It is designed to give readers an overview of the current knowledge base of the biological processes for each trait. It is unlikely that any one book could cover all human traits, but the Neurobiology of Exceptionality addresses a wide range of exceptional psychological traits and psychiatric disorders.

Handbook of Individual Differences in Reading

Author: Peter Afflerbach
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1135120927
Format: PDF, ePub
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The central unifying theme of this state-of-the-art contribution to research on literacy is its rethinking and reconceptualization of individual differences in reading. Previous research, focused on cognitive components of reading, signaled the need for ongoing work to identify relevant individual differences in reading, to determine the relationship(s) of individual differences to reading development, and to account for interactions among individual differences. Addressing developments in each of these areas, this volume also describes affective individual differences, and the environments in which individual differences in reading may emerge, operate, interact, and change. The scant comprehensive accounting of individual differences in reading is reflected in the nature of reading instruction programs today, the outcomes that are expected from successful teaching and learning, and the manner in which reading development is assessed. An important contribution of this volume is to provide prima facie evidence of the benefits of broad conceptualization of the ways in which readers differ. The Handbook of Individual Differences in Reading moves the field forward by encompassing cognitive, non-cognitive, contextual, and methodological concerns. Its breadth of coverage serves as both a useful summary of the current state of knowledge and a guide for future work in this area.

Human Intelligence and Medical Illness

Author: R. Grant Steen
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9781441900920
Format: PDF, Kindle
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As critics will note, psychometric tests are deeply flawed. Person-to-person differences in performance on a psychometric test are not informative about many things of great interest. An intelligence quotient (IQ) cannot characterize creativity or w- dom or artistic ability or other forms of specialized knowledge. An IQ test is simply an effort to assess an aptitude for success in the modern world, and individual scores do a mediocre job of predicting individual successes. In the early days of psychology, tests of intelligence were cobbled together with little thought as to validity; instead, the socially powerful sought to validate their power and the prominent to rationalize their success. In recent years, we have ob- ated many of the objections to IQ that were so forcefully noted by Stephen Jay Gould in The Mismeasure of Man. Nevertheless, IQ tests are still flawed and those flaws are hereby acknowledged in principle. Yet, in the analysis that follows, individual IQ test scores are not used; rather, average IQ scores are employed. In many cases – though not all – an average IQ is calculated from a truly enormous sample of people. The most common circ- stance for such large-scale IQ testing is an effort to systematically sample all men of a certain age, to assess their suitability for service in the military. Yet, it is useful and prudent to retain some degree of skepticism about the ability of IQ tests to measure individual aptitudes.

Students With Mild Exceptionalities

Author: Sydney S. Zentall
Publisher: SAGE Publications
ISBN: 1483314995
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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This concise and practical guide thoroughly presents the characteristics of children with specific mild exceptionalities in today's diverse classroom. Using an active, problem-solving approach that reflects how today's students learn, Dr. Sydney S. Zentall identifies the characteristics of children with mild exceptionalities that can be gleaned from observations, written descriptions, and personal interactions. Unlike many texts on this topic, which overwhelm students with extraneous information, The text focuses on the characteristics of these students within general education and special class settings. With this knowledge readers will better understand the implications of characteristics for accommodations and be ready to apply this knowledge with empirically based interventions.

Handbook of Childhood Psychopathology and Developmental Disabilities Treatment

Author: Johnny L. Matson
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319712101
Format: PDF, Mobi
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This handbook explores the rapid growth in childhood developmental disabilities (DD) treatments. It reviews current evidence-based treatments for common psychopathologies and developmental disorders and evaluates the strengths of the treatments based on empirical evidence. Spanning infancy through the transition to young adulthood, chapters provide definitions, etiologies, prevalence, typical presentation and variants, assessment and diagnostic information, and age considerations. Chapters also review established and emerging psychological approaches and pharmacotherapies for cognitive, behavioral, emotional, medical, academic, and developmental issues as diverse as mood disorders, the autism spectrum, memory problems, feeding disorders, Tourette syndrome, and migraines. The wide range of topics covered aids practitioners in working with the complexities of young clients’ cases while encouraging further advances in an increasingly relevant field. Topics featured in this handbook include: An introduction to Applied Behavior Analysis. Parent training interventions. Treatment strategies for depression in youth. Assessment and treatment of self-injurious behaviors in children with DD. Treatment approaches to aggression and tantrums in children with DD. Interventions for children with eating and feeding disorders. The Handbook of Childhood Psychopathology and Developmental Disabilities Treatment is a must-have resource for researchers, graduate students, clinicians, and related therapists and professionals in clinical child and school psychology, pediatrics, social work, developmental psychology, behavioral therapy/rehabilitation, child and adolescent psychiatry, and special education.

Resilience in Children Adolescents and Adults

Author: Sandra Prince-Embury
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1461449391
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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Resilience in Children, Adolescents, and Adults: Translating Research into Practice recognizes the growing need to strengthen the links between theory, assessment, interventions, and outcomes to give resilience a stronger empirical base, resulting in more effective interventions and strength-enhancing practice. This comprehensive volume clarifies core constructs of resilience and links these definitions to effective assessment. Leading researchers and clinicians examine effective scales, questionnaires, and other evaluative tools as well as instructive studies on cultural considerations in resilience, resilience in the context of disaster, and age-appropriate interventions. Key coverage addresses diverse approaches and applications in multiple areas across the lifespan. Among the subject areas covered are: - Perceived self-efficacy and its relationship to resilience. - Resilience and mental health promotion in the schools. - Resilience in childhood disorders. - Critical resources for recovering from stress. - Diversity, ecological, and lifespan issues in resilience. - Exploring resilience through the lens of core self-evaluation. Resilience in Children, Adolescents, and Adults is an important resource for researchers, clinicians and allied professionals, and graduate students in such fields as clinical child, school, and developmental psychology, child and adolescent psychiatry, education, counseling psychology, social work, and pediatrics.