Handbook of Philosophical Logic

Author: Dov M. Gabbay
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9401704627
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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It is with great pleasure that we are presenting to the community the second edition of this extraordinary handbook. It has been over 15 years since the publication of the first edition and there have been great changes in the landscape of philosophical logic since then. The first edition has proved invaluable to generations of students and researchers in formal philosophy and language, as well as to consumers of logic in many applied areas. The main logic article in the Encyclopaedia Britannica 1999 has described the first edition as 'the best starting point for exploring any of the topics in logic'. We are confident that the second edition will prove to be just as good! The first edition was the second handbook published for the logic commu nity. It followed the North Holland one volume Handbook of Mathematical Logic, published in 1977, edited by the late Jon Barwise. The four volume Handbook of Philosophical Logic, published 1983-1989 came at a fortunate temporal junction at the evolution of logic. This was the time when logic was gaining ground in computer science and artificial intelligence circles. These areas were under increasing commercial pressure to provide devices which help and/or replace the human in his daily activity. This pressure required the use of logic in the modelling of human activity and organisa tion on the one hand and to provide the theoretical basis for the computer program constructs on the other.

Causality in Sociological Research

Author: Jakub Karpinski
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9400904959
Format: PDF, ePub
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The general treatment of problems connected with the causal conditioning of phenomena has traditionally been the domain of philosophy, but when one examines the relationships taking place in the various fields, the study of such conditionings belongs to the empirical sciences. Sociology is no exception in that respect. In that discipline we note a certain paradox. Many problems connected with the causal conditioning of phenomena have been raised in sociology in relatively recent times, and that process marked its empirical or even so-called empiricist trend. That trend, labelled positivist, seems in this case to be in contradiction with a certain type of positivism. Those authors who describe positivism usually include the Humean tradition in its genealogy and, remembering Hume's criticism of the concept of cause, speak about positivism as about a trend which is inclined to treat lightly the study of causes and confines itself to the statements on co-occurrence of phenomena.

Logic Truth and the Modalities

Author: J.N. Mohanty
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9401721130
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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This volume is a collection of my essays on philosophy of logic from a phenomenological perspective. They deal with the four kinds of logic I have been concerned with: formal logic, transcendental logic, speculative logic and hermeneutic logic. Of these, only one, the essay on Hegel, touches upon 'speculative logic', and two, those on Heidegger and Konig, are concerned with hermeneutic logic. The rest have to do with Husser! and Kant. I have not tried to show that the four logics are compatible. I believe, they are--once they are given a phenomenological underpinning. The original plan of writing an Introduction in which the issues would have to be formulated, developed and brought together, was abandoned in favor of writing an Introductory Essay on the 'origin'- in the phenomenological sense -of logic. J.N.M. Philadelphia INTRODUCTION: THE ORIGIN OF LOGIC The question of the origin of logic may pertain to historical origin (When did it all begin? Who founded the science of logic?), psychological origin (When, in the course of its mental development, does the child learn logical operations?), cultural origin (What cultural - theological, metaphysical and linguisti- conditions make such a discipline as logic possible?), or transcendental constitutive origin (What sorts of acts and/or practices make logic possible?).

Reference Truth and Conceptual Schemes

Author: G. Forrai
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9401728682
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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1. HISTORICAL BACKGROUND The purpose of the book is to develop internal realism, the metaphysical-episte mological doctrine initiated by Hilary Putnam (Reason, Truth and History, "Introduction", Many Faces). In doing so I shall rely - sometimes quite heavily - on the notion of conceptual scheme. I shall use the notion in a somewhat idiosyncratic way, which, however, has some affinities with the ways the notion has been used during its history. So I shall start by sketching the history of the notion. This will provide some background, and it will also give opportunity to raise some of the most important problems I will have to solve in the later chapters. The story starts with Kant. Kant thought that the world as we know it, the world of tables, chairs and hippopotami, is constituted in part by the human mind. His cen tral argument relied on an analysis of space and time, and presupposed his famous doctrine that knowledge cannot extend beyond all possible experience. It is a central property of experience - he claimed - that it is structured spatially and temporally. However, for various reasons, space and time cannot be features of the world, as it is independently of our experience. So he concluded that they must be the forms of human sensibility, i. e. necessary ingredients of the way things appear to our senses.

Language Mind and Art

Author: D. Jamieson
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9401583137
Format: PDF
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This book is a collection of essays in honor of Paul Ziff written by his col leagues, students, and friends. Many of the authors address topics that Ziff has discussed in his writings: understanding, rules and regularities, proper names, the feelings of machines, expression, and aesthetic experience. Paul Ziff began his professional career as an artist, went on to study painting with J. M. Hanson at Cornell, and then studied for the Ph. D. in philosophy, also at Cornell, with Max Black. Over the next three decades he produced a series of remarkable papers in philosophy of art, culminating in 1984 with the publica tion of Antiaesthetics: An Appreciation of the Cow with the Subtile Nose. In 1960 he published Semantic Analysis, his masterwork in philosophy of lan guage. Throughout his career he made important contributions to philosophy of mind in such papers as "The Simplicity of Other Minds" (1965) and "About Behaviourism" (1958). In addition to his work in these areas, his lec tures at Harvard on philosophy of religion are an underground classic; and throughout his career he has continued to make art and to search for the meaning of life in the properties of prime numbers. Although his interests are wide and deep, questions about language, art, and mind have dominated his philosophical work, and it is problems in these areas that provide the topics of most of the essays in this volume.

The Oxford Handbook of Philosophy of Mathematics and Logic

Author: Stewart Shapiro
Publisher: OUP USA
ISBN: 0195148770
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Covers the state of the art in the philosophy of maths and logic, giving the reader an overview of the major problems, positions, and battle lines. The chapters in this book contain both exposition and criticism as well as substantial development of their own positions. It also includes a bibliography.

Essays on Mathematical and Philosophical Logic

Author: Scandinavian Logic Symposium
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9789027708793
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Proceedings of the Fourth Scandinavian Logic Symposium and of the First Soviet-Finnish Logic Conference, Jyväskylä, Finland, June 29-July 6, 1976.

Philosophy of Logic

Author: W. V. QUINE
Publisher: Harvard University Press
ISBN: 9780674665637
Format: PDF, Mobi
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1 Meaning and Truth Objection to propositions Propositions as information Diffuseness of empirical meaning Propositions dismissed Truth and semantic ascent Tokens and eternal sentences 2 Grammar Grammar by recursion Categories Immanence and transcendence Grammarian's goal reexamined Logical grammar Redundant devices Names and functors Lexicon, particle, and name Criterion of lexicon Time, events, adverbs Attitudes and modality 3 Truth Truth and satisfaction Satisfaction by sequences Tarski's definition of truth Paradox in the object language Resolution in set theory 4 Logical Truth In terms of structure In terms of substitution In terms of models Adequacy of substituteon In terms of proof In terms of grammar 5 The Scope of Logic Affinities of identity Identity reduced Set theory Set theory in sheep's clothing Logic in wolf's clothing Scope of the virtual theory Simulated class quantification Other simulated quantification Annexes 6 Deviant Login Change of logic, change of subject Logic in translation Law of excluded middle Debate about the dichotomy Intuitionism Branched quantifiers Substitutional quantification Its strength 7 The Ground of Logical Truth The semblance of a theory An untenable dualism The place of logic For Further Reading Index.

The Logic of Time

Author: Johan van Benthem
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9401098689
Format: PDF, Kindle
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That philosophical themes could be studied in an exact manner by logical meanS was a delightful discovery to make. Until then, the only outlet for a philosophical interest known to me was the production of poetry or essays. These means of expression remain inconclusive, however, with a tendency towards profuseness. The logical discipline provides so me intellectual backbone, without excluding the literary modes. A master's thesis by Erik Krabbe introduced me to the subject of tense logic. The doctoral dissertation of Paul N eedham awaked me (as so many others) from my dogmatic slumbers concerning the latter's mono poly on the logical study of Time. Finally, a set of lecture notes by Frank Veltman showed me how classical model theory is just as relevant to that study as more exotic intensional techniques. Of the authors whose work inspired me most, I would mention Arthur Prior, for his irresistible blend of logic and philosophy, Krister Segerberg, for his technical opening up of a systematic theory, and Hans Kamp, for his mastery of all these things at once. Many colleagues have made helpful comments on the two previous versions of this text. I would like to thank especially my students Ed Brinksma, Jan van Eyck and Wilfried Meyer-Viol for their logical and cultural criticism. The drawings were contributed by the versatile Bauke Mulder. Finally, Professor H intikka's kind appreciation provided the stimulus to write this book.