Handbook of Sample Preparation

Author: Janusz Pawliszyn
Publisher: John Wiley and Sons
ISBN: 9780470880197
Format: PDF, Docs
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Discover new keys to solving analytical problems using the Latest sample preparation methods Commonly viewed of as a routine task rather than as an integral component in the analytical process, sample preparation has long been undervalued as a science and underdeveloped as a technology. In an effort to reverse this trend, Handbook of Sample Preparation shows why sample preparation deserves closer scientific scrutiny, and makes a compelling case for colleges and professional laboratories to devote more resources to promote the benefits of its correct application. Handbook of Sample Preparation includes: A solid overview of standard sampling methodologies and their analytical capabilities An introduction of non-traditional sampling technologies, which address the need for solvent-free alternatives, automation, and miniaturization A discussion of the analytical shift toward performing sampling on-site, rather than in the laboratory An examination of various extraction technologies and their applications for different types of matrices A look at how to take advantage of new sampling strategies to streamline laboratory procedures, reduce research costs, and increase overall productivity An excellent primer on the fundamentals of extraction as well as a sound guide on the latest technological upgrades influencing current sampling techniques, this versatile text serves as an important and accessible tool for both students and seasoned practitioners as they seek new avenues for improving the accuracy of their analyses.

Handbook of Sample Preparation for Scanning Electron Microscopy and X Ray Microanalysis

Author: Patrick Echlin
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9780387857312
Format: PDF, Docs
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Scanning electr on microscopy (SEM) and x-ray microanalysis can produce magnified images and in situ chemical information from virtually any type of specimen. The two instruments generally operate in a high vacuum and a very dry environment in order to produce the high energy beam of electrons needed for imaging and analysis. With a few notable exceptions, most specimens destined for study in the SEM are poor conductors and composed of beam sensitive light elements containing variable amounts of water. In the SEM, the imaging system depends on the specimen being sufficiently electrically conductive to ensure that the bulk of the incoming electrons go to ground. The formation of the image depends on collecting the different signals that are scattered as a consequence of the high energy beam interacting with the sample. Backscattered electrons and secondary electrons are generated within the primary beam-sample interactive volume and are the two principal signals used to form images. The backscattered electron coefficient ( ? ) increases with increasing atomic number of the specimen, whereas the secondary electron coefficient ( ? ) is relatively insensitive to atomic number. This fundamental diff- ence in the two signals can have an important effect on the way samples may need to be prepared. The analytical system depends on collecting the x-ray photons that are generated within the sample as a consequence of interaction with the same high energy beam of primary electrons used to produce images.

Sample Preparation Handbook for Transmission Electron Microscopy

Author: Jeanne Ayache
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9781441959744
Format: PDF, Docs
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Successful transmission electron microscopy in all of its manifestations depends on the quality of the specimens examined. Biological specimen preparation protocols have usually been more rigorous and time consuming than those in the physical sciences. For this reason, there has been a wealth of scienti c literature detailing speci c preparation steps and numerous excellent books on the preparation of b- logical thin specimens. This does not mean to imply that physical science specimen preparation is trivial. For the most part, most physical science thin specimen pre- ration protocols can be executed in a matter of a few hours using straightforward steps. Over the years, there has been a steady stream of papers written on various aspects of preparing thin specimens from bulk materials. However, aside from s- eral seminal textbooks and a series of book compilations produced by the Material Research Society in the 1990s, no recent comprehensive books on thin specimen preparation have appeared until this present work, rst in French and now in English. Everyone knows that the data needed to solve a problem quickly are more imp- tant than ever. A modern TEM laboratory with supporting SEMs, light microscopes, analytical spectrometers, computers, and specimen preparation equipment is an investment of several million US dollars. Fifty years ago, electropolishing, chemical polishing, and replication methods were the principal specimen preparation me- ods.

Sample Preparation Handbook for Transmission Electron Microscopy

Author: Jeanne Ayache
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9780387981826
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Successful transmission electron microscopy in all of its manifestations depends on the quality of the specimens examined. Biological specimen preparation protocols have usually been more rigorous and time consuming than those in the physical sciences. For this reason, there has been a wealth of scienti?c literature detailing speci?c preparation steps and numerous excellent books on the preparation of b- logical thin specimens. This does not mean to imply that physical science specimen preparation is trivial. For the most part, most physical science thin specimen pre- ration protocols can be executed in a matter of a few hours using straightforward steps. Over the years, there has been a steady stream of papers written on various aspects of preparing thin specimens from bulk materials. However, aside from s- eral seminal textbooks and a series of book compilations produced by the Material Research Society in the 1990s, no recent comprehensive books on thin spe- men preparation have appeared until this present work, ?rst in French and now in English. Everyone knows that the data needed to solve a problem quickly are more imp- tant than ever. A modern TEM laboratory with supporting SEMs, light microscopes, analytical spectrometers, computers, and specimen preparation equipment is an investment of several million US dollars. Fifty years ago, electropolishing, chemical polishing, and replication methods were the principal specimen preparation me- ods.

Handbook of Solid Phase Microextraction

Author: Janusz Pawliszyn
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 0123914493
Format: PDF, ePub
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The relatively new technique of solid phase microextraction (SPME) is an important tool to prepare samples both in the lab and on-site. SPME is a "green" technology because it eliminates organic solvents from analytical laboratory and can be used in environmental, food and fragrance, and forensic and drug analysis. This handbook offers a thorough background of the theory and practical implementation of SPME. SPME protocols are presented outlining each stage of the method and providing useful tips and potential pitfalls. In addition, devices and fiber coatings, automated SPME systems, SPME method development, and In Vivo applications are discussed. This handbook is essential for its discussion of the latest SPME developments as well as its in depth information on the history, theory, and practical application of the method. Practical application of Solid Phase Microextraction methods including detailed steps Provides history of extraction methods to better understand the process Suitable for all levels, from beginning student to experienced practitioner

Handbook of Green Analytical Chemistry

Author: Miguel de la Guardia
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 111994094X
Format: PDF, Mobi
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The emerging field of green analytical chemistry is concerned with the development of analytical procedures that minimize consumption of hazardous reagents and solvents, and maximize safety for operators and the environment. In recent years there have been significant developments in methodological and technological tools to prevent and reduce the deleterious effects of analytical activities; key strategies include recycling, replacement, reduction and detoxification of reagents and solvents. The Handbook of Green Analytical Chemistry provides a comprehensive overview of the present state and recent developments in green chemical analysis. A series of detailed chapters, written by international specialists in the field, discuss the fundamental principles of green analytical chemistry and present a catalogue of tools for developing environmentally friendly analytical techniques. Topics covered include: Concepts: Fundamental principles, education, laboratory experiments and publication in green analytical chemistry. The Analytical Process: Green sampling techniques and sample preparation, direct analysis of samples, green methods for capillary electrophoresis, chromatography, atomic spectroscopy, solid phase molecular spectroscopy, derivative molecular spectroscopy and electroanalytical methods. Strategies: Energy saving, automation, miniaturization and photocatalytic treatment of laboratory wastes. Fields of Application: Green bioanalytical chemistry, biodiagnostics, environmental analysis and industrial analysis. This advanced handbook is a practical resource for experienced analytical chemists who are interested in implementing green approaches in their work.

Handbook of Radioactivity Analysis

Author: Michael F. L'Annunziata
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 0123848733
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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Authoritative reference providing the principles, practical techniques, and procedures for the accurate measurement of radioactivity.

Handbook of Stable Isotope Analytical Techniques

Author: Pier A. de Groot
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 0080930115
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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This two-volume reference serves as a handbook containing a wealth of information for all isotope chemists working in a wide range of disciplines including anthropology to ecology; drug detection methodology to toxicology; nutrition to food science; and the atmospheric sciences to geochemistry. Complementing the first volume, Volume II includes matters that are not strictly confined to the analytical techniques themselves, but relate to analysis of stable isotopes, such as the views on the development of mass spectrometers, isotopic scales, standards and references, and directives for setting up a laboratory. ALSO AVAILABLE: Volume I: Dec. 2004, 0444511148/9780444511140, $176.00 Volume I and II (set): Oct. 2007, 0444511164/9780444511164, $205.00 * Presents an encyclopedic overview of stable isotope analytical techniques in an objective way * Includes descriptions of methods and diagrams of analytical devices * Addresses how older techniques formed the basis for present-day techniques, which can be useful in constructing modern analytical systems * Completments Volume I of the set