Hard Sell

Author: Peter Ikeler
Publisher: Cornell University Press
ISBN: 1501706632
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Along with fast-food workers, retail workers are capturing the attention of the public and the media with the Fight for $15. Like fast-food workers, retail workers are underpaid, and fewer than 5 percent of them belong to unions. In Hard Sell, Peter Ikeler traces the low-wage, largely nonunion character of U.S. retail through the history and ultimate failure of twentieth-century retail unionism. He asks pivotal questions about twenty-first-century capitalism: Does the nature of retail work make collective action unlikely? Can working conditions improve in the absence of a union? Is worker consciousness changing in ways that might encourage or further inhibit organizing? Ikeler conducted interviews at New York City locations of two iconic department stores—Macy's and Target. Much of the book’s narrative unfolds from the perspectives of these workers in America’s most unequal city. When he speaks to workers, Ikeler finds that the Macy’s organization displays an adversarial relationship between workers and managers and that Target is infused with a "teamwork" message that enfolds both parties. Macy’s workers identify more with their jobs and are more opposed to management, yet Target workers show greater solidarity. Both groups, however, are largely unhappy with the pay and precariousness of their jobs. Combined with workplace-generated feelings of unity and resistance, these grievances provide promising inroads to organizing that could help take the struggle against inequality beyond symbolic action to real economic power.

The Knowledge of Nature and the Nature of Knowledge in Early Modern Japan

Author: Federico Marcon
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
ISBN: 022625190X
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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From the early seventeenth to the mid-nineteenth century Japan saw the creation, development, and apparent disappearance of the field of natural history, or "honzogaku." Federico Marcon traces the changing views of the natural environment that accompanied its development by surveying the ideas and practices deployed by "honzogaku" practitioners and by vividly reconstructing the social forces that affected them. These include a burgeoning publishing industry, increased circulation of ideas and books, the spread of literacy, processes of institutionalization in schools and academies, systems of patronage, and networks of cultural circles, all of which helped to shape the study of nature. In this pioneering social history of knowledge in Japan, Marcon shows how scholars developed a sophisticated discipline that was analogous to European natural history but formed independently. He also argues that when contacts with Western scholars, traders, and diplomats intensified in the nineteenth century, the previously dominant paradigm of "honzogaku "slowly succumbed to modern Western natural science not by suppression and substitution, as was previously thought, but by creative adaptation and transformation.

The Communist Takeover of Hangzhou

Author: James Zheng Gao
Publisher: University of Hawaii Press
ISBN: 9780824827014
Format: PDF, ePub
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Existing literature on the Chinese Revolution takes into account the influence of peasant society on Mao's ideas and policies but rarely discusses a reverse effect of comparable significance: namely, how peasant cadres were affected by the urban environment into which they moved. In this detailed examination of the cultural dimension of regime change in the early years of the Revolution, James Gao looks at how rural-based cadres changed and were changed by the urban culture that they were sent to dominate. He investigates how Communist cadres at the middle and lower levels left their familiar rural environment to take over the city of Hangzhou and how they consolidated political control, established economic stability, developed institutional reforms, and created political rituals to transform the urban culture. His book analyzes the interplay between revolutionary and nonrevolutionary culture with respect to the varying degrees with which they resisted and adapted to each other. It reveals the essential role of cultural identity in legitimizing the new regime and keeping its revolutionary ideal alive. Based on extensive research in regional and local archives in Zhejiang province

Crossing National Borders

Author: Tsuneo Akaha
Publisher: United Nations University Press
ISBN: 9280811177
Format: PDF, ePub
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International migration and other types of cross-border movement are becoming an important part of international relations in Northeast Asia. In this pioneering study, experts on China, Japan, Korea, Mongolia, and Russia examine the political, economic, social, and cultural dimensions of the interaction between border-crossing individuals and host communities. The book highlights the challenges facing national and local leaders in each country and suggests needed changes in national and international policies. The authors analyze population trends and migration patterns in each country: Chinese migration to the Russian Far East; Chinese, Koreans, and Russians in Japan; North Koreans in China; and migration issues in South Korea and Mongolia. The book introduces a wealth of empirical material and insight to both international migration studies and Northeast Asian area studies.

The WTO

Author: Merit E. Janow
Publisher: Juris Publishing, Inc.
ISBN: 1578232325
Format: PDF, Kindle
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This volume brings together essays by world-renowned leaders in the field of international trade examining the operation of the WTO and its dispute settlement system. The experts who have contributed to this book include policymakers, scholars, lawyers and diplomats. Two major areas of inquiry are undertaken. The first half of this volume examines the governance and operation of the WTO and the international trading system. It pays particular attention to issues that affect developing country members of the WTO. The second half of this volume contains a detailed examination of the performance, operation, and challenges of the WTO's dispute settlement system. This book is an outgrowth of a conference held at Columbia University in New York in the spring of 2006. The conference was the last of a series of five regional gatherings held around the world to commemorate the 10th anniversary of the WTO and its dispute settlement system. This volume includes essays that shed further light on some of the themes raised in those discussions, as well as edited transcripts from that conference.

History Textbooks and the Wars in Asia

Author: Gi-Wook Shin
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1136830901
Format: PDF, Docs
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Over the past fifteen years Northeast Asia has witnessed growing intraregional exchanges and interactions, especially in the realms of culture and economy. Still, the region cannot escape from the burden of history. This book examines the formation of historical memory in four Northeast Asian societies (China, Japan, South Korea, and Taiwan) and the United States focusing on the period from the beginning of the Sino-Japanese war in 1931 until the formal conclusion of the Pacific War with the San Francisco Peace Treaty of 1951. The contributors analyse the recent efforts of Korean, Japanese, and Chinese scholars to write a ‘common history’ of Northeast Asia and question the underlying motivations for their efforts and subsequent achievements. In doing so, they contend that the greatest obstacle to reconciliation in Northeast Asia lies in the existence of divided, and often conflicting, historical memories. The book argues that a more fruitful approach lies in understanding how historical memory has evolved in each country and been incorporated into respective master narratives. Through uncovering the existence of different master narratives, it is hoped, citizens will develop a more self-critical, self-reflective approach to their own history and that such an introspective effort has the potential to lay the foundation for greater self- and mutual understanding and eventual historical reconciliation in the region. This book will be essential reading for students and scholars of Asian history, Asian education and international relations in East Asia.

The Aid Trap

Author: R. Glenn Hubbard
Publisher: Columbia University Press
ISBN: 0231519508
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Over the past twenty years more citizens in China and India have raised themselves out of poverty than anywhere else at any time in history. They accomplished this through the local business sector& mdash;the leading source of prosperity for all rich countries. In most of Africa and other poor regions the business sector is weak, but foreign aid continues to fund government and NGOs. Switching aid to the local business sector in order to cultivate a middle class is the oldest, surest, and only way to eliminate poverty in poor countries. A bold fusion of ethics and smart business, The Aid Trap shows how the same energy, goodwill, and money that we devote to charity can help local business thrive. R. Glenn Hubbard and William Duggan, two leading scholars in business and finance, demonstrate that by diverting a major share of charitable aid into the local business sector of poor countries, citizens can take the lead in the growth of their own economies. Although the aid system supports noble goals, a local well-digging company cannot compete with a foreign charity that digs wells for free. By investing in that local company a sustainable system of development can take root.

Globalization and Growth

Author: Michael Spence
Publisher: World Bank Publications
ISBN: 9780821382219
Format: PDF, Mobi
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The volume provides a comprehensive overview of the financial and economic crises of 2008-2009 and the economic and financial policy implications for growth in developing countries.

Integrating Clinical Research into Epidemic Response

Author: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine
Publisher: National Academies Press
ISBN: 0309457769
Format: PDF, Kindle
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The 2014â€"2015 Ebola epidemic in western Africa was the longest and most deadly Ebola epidemic in history, resulting in 28,616 cases and 11,310 deaths in Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone. The Ebola virus has been known since 1976, when two separate outbreaks were identified in the Democratic Republic of Congo (then Zaire) and South Sudan (then Sudan). However, because all Ebola outbreaks prior to that in West Africa in 2014â€"2015 were relatively isolated and of short duration, little was known about how to best manage patients to improve survival, and there were no approved therapeutics or vaccines. When the World Heath Organization declared the 2014-2015 epidemic a public health emergency of international concern in August 2014, several teams began conducting formal clinical trials in the Ebola affected countries during the outbreak. Integrating Clinical Research into Epidemic Response: The Ebola Experience assesses the value of the clinical trials held during the 2014â€"2015 epidemic and makes recommendations about how the conduct of trials could be improved in the context of a future international emerging or re-emerging infectious disease events.

Fabricating Consumers

Author: Andrew Gordon
Publisher: Univ of California Press
ISBN: 0520267850
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Since its early days of mass production in the 1850s, the sewing machine has been intricately connected with the global development of capitalism. Andrew Gordon traces the machine’s remarkable journey into and throughout Japan, where it not only transformed manners of dress, but also helped change patterns of daily life, class structure, and the role of women. As he explores the selling, buying, and use of the sewing machine in the early to mid-twentieth century, Gordon finds that its history is a lens through which we can examine the modern transformation of daily life in Japan. Both as a tool of production and as an object of consumer desire, the sewing machine is entwined with the emergence and ascendance of the middle class, of the female consumer, and of the professional home manager as defining elements of Japanese modernity.