Healthy Volunteers in Commercial Clinical Drug Trials

Author: Shadreck Mwale
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319592149
Format: PDF, Docs
Download Now
This book provides a richly detailed contribution to the understanding of healthy volunteer experiences in clinical drug trials in the UK. Contemporary society, especially the West, has seen a significant increase in the production and use of pharmaceutical products, particularly for disease treatment. However, despite the large numbers of people involved, particularly in the UK, very little is known about their experiences in commercial phase I clinical drug trials. Shadreck Mwale critiques common conceptions of the terms ‘volunteer’ and ‘altruism’ as used in policy and practice of human involvement in clinical trials and calls for an awareness of the complexity of the terms and how the social contexts participants find themselves in shape acts of voluntarism. Based on extensive empirical evidence and conceptual analysis, the book presents new insights into the lives of healthy volunteers, challenges bioethical conceptions and generates new frameworks for policy and practice of FIHCTs. It will be of particular interest to scholars and practitioners in the wider social sciences, medical Sociology and medical anthropology, pharmacology and bioethics.

Ethics Dumping

Author: Doris Schroeder
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319647318
Format: PDF, Docs
Download Now
This book is published under a CC BY 4.0 license. This book provides original, up-to-date case studies of “ethics dumping” that were largely facilitated by loopholes in the ethics governance of low and middle-income countries. It is instructive even to experienced researchers since it provides a voice to vulnerable populations from the fore mentioned countries. Ensuring the ethical conduct of North-South collaborations in research is a process fraught with difficulties. The background conditions under which such collaborations take place include extreme differentials in available income and power, as well as a past history of colonialism, while differences in culture can add a new layer of complications. In this context, up-to-date case studies of unethical conduct are essential for research ethics training.

The Professional Guinea Pig

Author: Roberto Abadie
Publisher: Duke University Press
ISBN: 0822393247
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
Download Now
The Professional Guinea Pig documents the emergence of the professional research subject in Phase I clinical trials testing the safety of drugs in development. Until the mid-1970s Phase I trials were conducted on prisoners. After that practice was outlawed, the pharmaceutical industry needed a replacement population and began to aggressively recruit healthy, paid subjects, some of whom came to depend on the income, earning their living by continuously taking part in these trials. Drawing on ethnographic research among self-identified “professional guinea pigs” in Philadelphia, Roberto Abadie examines their experiences and views on the conduct of the trials and the risks they assume by participating. Some of the research subjects he met had taken part in more than eighty Phase I trials. While the professional guinea pigs tended to believe that most clinical trials pose only a moderate health risk, Abadie contends that the hazards presented by continuous participation, such as exposure to potentially dangerous drug interactions, are discounted or ignored by research subjects in need of money. The risks to professional guinea pigs are also disregarded by the pharmaceutical industry, which has become dependent on the routine participation of experienced research subjects. Arguing that financial incentives compromise the ethical imperative for informed consent to be freely given by clinical-trials subjects, Abadie confirms the need to reform policies regulating the participation of paid subjects in Phase I clinical trials.

Principles and Practice of Clinical Research

Author: John I. Gallin
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 0128499044
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
Download Now
Principles and Practice of Clinical Research, Fourth Edition has been thoroughly revised to provide a comprehensive look at both the fundamental principles and expanding practice of clinical research. New to this edition of this highly regarded reference, authors have focused on examples that broadly reflect clinical research on a global scale while including a discussion of international regulations, studies, and implications. In addition to key topics such as bioethics, clinical outcome data, cultural diversity, protocol guidelines, and “omic platforms, this edition contains new chapters devoted to electronic health records and information resources for clinical researchers, as well as the many opportunities associated with big data. Covering a vast number of topics and practical advice for both novice and advanced clinical investigators, this book is a highly relevant and essential resource for all those involved in conducting research. Features input from experts in the field dedicated to translating scientific research from bench to bedside and back Provides expanded coverage of global clinical research Contains hands-on, practical suggestions, illustrations, and examples throughout Includes new chapters on the international regulation of drugs and biologics, the emergence of the important role of comparative effectiveness research and how to identify clinical risks and manage patient safety in a clinical research setting

When Experiments Travel

Author: Adriana Petryna
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 9781400830824
Format: PDF, Kindle
Download Now
The phenomenal growth of global pharmaceutical sales and the quest for innovation are driving an unprecedented search for human test subjects, particularly in middle- and low-income countries. Our hope for medical progress increasingly depends on the willingness of the world's poor to participate in clinical drug trials. While these experiments often provide those in need with vital and previously unattainable medical resources, the outsourcing and offshoring of trials also create new problems. In this groundbreaking book, anthropologist Adriana Petryna takes us deep into the clinical trials industry as it brings together players separated by vast economic and cultural differences. Moving between corporate and scientific offices in the United States and research and public health sites in Poland and Brazil, When Experiments Travel documents the complex ways that commercial medical science, with all its benefits and risks, is being integrated into local health systems and emerging drug markets. Providing a unique perspective on globalized clinical trials, When Experiments Travel raises central questions: Are such trials exploitative or are they social goods? How are experiments controlled and how is drug safety ensured? And do these experiments help or harm public health in the countries where they are conducted? Empirically rich and theoretically innovative, the book shows that neither the language of coercion nor that of rational choice fully captures the range of situations and value systems at work in medical experiments today. When Experiments Travel challenges conventional understandings of the ethics and politics of transnational science and changes the way we think about global medicine and the new infrastructures of our lives.

Transforming Clinical Research in the United States

Author: Institute of Medicine
Publisher: National Academies Press
ISBN: 9780309163354
Format: PDF, Kindle
Download Now
An ideal health care system relies on efficiently generating timely, accurate evidence to deliver on its promise of diminishing the divide between clinical practice and research. There are growing indications, however, that the current health care system and the clinical research that guides medical decisions in the United States falls far short of this vision. The process of generating medical evidence through clinical trials in the United States is expensive and lengthy, includes a number of regulatory hurdles, and is based on a limited infrastructure. The link between clinical research and medical progress is also frequently misunderstood or unsupported by both patients and providers. The focus of clinical research changes as diseases emerge and new treatments create cures for old conditions. As diseases evolve, the ultimate goal remains to speed new and improved medical treatments to patients throughout the world. To keep pace with rapidly changing health care demands, clinical research resources need to be organized and on hand to address the numerous health care questions that continually emerge. Improving the overall capacity of the clinical research enterprise will depend on ensuring that there is an adequate infrastructure in place to support the investigators who conduct research, the patients with real diseases who volunteer to participate in experimental research, and the institutions that organize and carry out the trials. To address these issues and better understand the current state of clinical research in the United States, the Institute of Medicine's (IOM) Forum on Drug Discovery, Development, and Translation held a 2-day workshop entitled Transforming Clinical Research in the United States. The workshop, summarized in this volume, laid the foundation for a broader initiative of the Forum addressing different aspects of clinical research. Future Forum plans include further examining regulatory, administrative, and structural barriers to the effective conduct of clinical research; developing a vision for a stable, continuously funded clinical research infrastructure in the United States; and considering strategies and collaborative activities to facilitate more robust public engagement in the clinical research enterprise.

New Treatments for Addiction

Author: National Research Council
Publisher: National Academies Press
ISBN: 9780309166652
Format: PDF
Download Now
New and improved therapies to treat and protect against drug dependence and abuse are urgently needed. In the United States alone about 50 million people regularly smoke tobacco and another 5 million are addicted to other drugs. In a given year, millions of these individuals attemptâ€"with or without medical assistanceâ€"to quit using drugs, though relapse remains the norm. Furthermore, each year several million teenagers start smoking and nearly as many take illicit drugs for the first time. Research is advancing on promising new means of treating drug addiction using immunotherapies and sustained-release (depot) medications. The aim of this research is to develop medications that can block or significantly attenuate the psychoactive effects of such drugs as cocaine, nicotine, heroin, phencyclidine, and methamphetamine for weeks or months at a time. This represents a fundamentally new therapeutic approach that shows promise for treating drug addiction problems that were difficult to treat in the past. Despite their potential benefits, however, several characteristics of these new methods pose distinct behavioral, ethical, legal, and social challenges that require careful scrutiny. Such issues can be considered unique aspects of safety and efficacy that are fundamentally related to the distinct nature and properties of these new types of medications.

Safe and Effective Medicines for Children

Author: Committee on Pediatric Studies Conducted Under the Best Pharmaceuticals for Children Act (BPCA) and the Pediatric Research Equity Act (PREA)
Publisher: National Academies Press
ISBN: 0309225507
Format: PDF, ePub
Download Now
The Best Pharmaceuticals for Children Act (BPCA) and the Pediatric Research Equity Act (PREA) were designed to encourage more pediatric studies of drugs used for children. The FDA asked the IOM to review aspects of pediatric studies and changes in product labeling that resulted from BPCA and PREA and their predecessor policies, as well as assess the incentives for pediatric studies of biologics and the extent to which biologics have been studied in children. The IOM committee concludes that these policies have helped provide clinicians who care for children with better information about the efficacy, safety, and appropriate prescribing of drugs. The IOM suggests that more can be done to increase knowledge about drugs used by children and thereby improve the clinical care, health, and well-being of the nation's children.

Re Engineering Clinical Trials

Author: Peter Schueler
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 0128007907
Format: PDF
Download Now
The pharmaceutical industry is currently operating under a business model that is not sustainable for the future. Given the high costs associated with drug development, there is a vital need to reform this process in order to provide safe and effective drugs while still securing a profit. Re-Engineering Clinical Trials evaluates the trends and challenges associated with the current drug development process and presents solutions that integrate the use of modern communication technologies, innovations and novel enrichment designs. This book focuses on the need to simplify drug development and offers you well-established methodologies and best practices based on real-world experiences from expert authors across industry and academia. Written for all those involved in clinical research, development and clinical trial design, this book provides a unique and valuable resource for streamlining the process, containing costs and increasing drug safety and effectiveness. Highlights the latest paradigm-shifts and innovation advances in clinical research Offers easy-to-find best practice sections, lists of current literature and resources for further reading and useful solutions to day-to-day problems in current drug development Discusses important topics such as safety profiling, data mining, site monitoring, change management, increasing development costs, key performance indicators and much more

Designing Clinical Research

Author: Stephen B. Hulley
Publisher: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
ISBN: 1469840545
Format: PDF, Docs
Download Now
Designing Clinical Research sets the standard for providing a practical guide to planning, tabulating, formulating, and implementing clinical research, with an easy-to-read, uncomplicated presentation. This product incorporates current research methodology--including molecular and genetic clinical research--and offers an updated syllabus for conducting a clinical research workshop. Emphasis is on common sense as the main ingredient of good science. The book explains how to choose well-focused research questions and details the steps through all the elements of study design, data collection, quality assurance, and basic grant-writing.