High Pressure Phase Behaviour of Multicomponent Fluid Mixtures

Author: R.J. Sadus
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 0444596666
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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The high pressure phase behaviour of binary fluid mixtures has been extensively studied during the last three decades. There is ample experimental data for a wide variety of binary mixtures and extensive methods for prediction have been developed. In contrast, the investigation of ternary and other multicomponent fluids is in its infancy. Experimental ternary mixture critical data are very rare and theoretical studies have been limited to data correlation rather than genuine prediction. The phase behaviour of ternary and other multicomponent fluid mixtures has many novel aspects which are not manifested in binary mixtures. The properties of ternary mixtures are also likely to be more difficult to characterize experimentally. It is in this context that calculated phase diagrams have an important role in leading the discovery of new phenomena and guiding experimental work. The criteria for phase equilibria of multicomponent fluids with particular emphasis on the critical state are examined in this book, and models for predicting fluid equilibria (e.g., different equations of state) are compared. Particular attention is paid to the critical state of ternary mixtures which has hitherto been largely neglected. The problems associated with predicting ternary equilibria are discussed, and some novel aspects of ternary critical phenomena are illustrated. The books also describes a novel type of critical transition which appears to be a common feature of the equilibria of ternary mixtures. Extensive phase diagrams of a wide range of ternary mixtures including systems containing carbon dioxide, water, nitrogen and tetrafluoromethane as one or more component are presented. The theoretical treatment is detailed in the appendix and a computation of known experimental critical points is also included.

Berechnung von Phasengleichgewichten

Author: Ralf Dohrn
Publisher: Springer-Verlag
ISBN: 332299211X
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Besonderheiten: Übersicht über den aktuellen Wissensstand im historischen Zusammenhang; ausführliche Literaturübersicht; anschauliche Berechnungsbeispiele; im Anhang: ausführliche Zusammenstellung wichtiger Berechnungsgleichungen.

Supercritical Fluids

Author: E. Kiran
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9401139296
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Supercritical fluids are neither gas nor liquid, but can be compressed gradually from low to high density and they are therefore interesting and important as tunable solvents and reaction media in the chemical process industry. By adjusting the density the properties of these fluids can be customised and manipulated for a given process - physical or chemical transformation. Separation and processing using supercritical solvents such as CO2 are currently on-line commercially in the food, essential oils and polymer industries. Many agencies and industries are considering the use of supercritical water for waste remediation. Supercritical fluid chromatography represents another, major analytical application. Significant advances have recently been made in materials processing, ranging from particle formation to the creation of porous materials. The chapters in this book provide tutorial accounts of topical areas centred around: (1) phase equilibria, thermodynamics and equations of state; (2) critical behaviour, crossover effects; (3) transport and interfacial properties; (4) molecular modelling, computer simulation; (5) reactions, spectroscopy; (6) phase separation kinetics; (7) extractions; (8) applications to polymers, pharmaceuticals, natural materials and chromatography; (9) process scale-up.

High Pressure Fluid Phase Equilibria

Author: Ulrich K Deiters
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 0444563547
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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The book begins with an overview of the phase diagrams of fluid mixtures (fluid = liquid, gas, or supercritical state), which can show an astonishing variety when elevated pressures are taken into account; phenomena like retrograde condensation (single and double) and azeotropy (normal and double) are discussed. It then gives an introduction into the relevant thermodynamic equations for fluid mixtures, including some that are rarely found in modern textbooks, and shows how they can they be used to compute phase diagrams and related properties. This chapter gives a consistent and axiomatic approach to fluid thermodynamics; it avoids using activity coefficients. Further chapters are dedicated to solid-fluid phase equilibria and global phase diagrams (systematic search for phase diagram classes). The appendix contains numerical algorithms needed for the computations. The book thus enables the reader to create or improve computer programs for the calculation of fluid phase diagrams. introduces phase diagram classes, how to recognize them and identify their characteristic features presents rational nomenclature of binary fluid phase diagrams includes problems and solutions for self-testing, exercises or seminars

Liquids and Liquid Mixtures

Author: J S Rowlinson
Publisher: Butterworth-Heinemann
ISBN: 1483140679
Format: PDF, ePub
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Liquids and Liquid Mixtures, Third Edition explores the equilibrium properties of liquids and liquid mixtures and relates them to the properties of the constituent molecules using the methods of statistical thermodynamics. Topics covered include the critical state, fluid mixtures at high pressures, and the statistical thermodynamics of fluids and mixtures. This book consists of eight chapters and begins with an overview of the liquid state and the thermodynamic properties of liquids and liquid mixtures, including vapor pressure and heat capacities. The discussion then turns to the thermodynamics of and inequalities at the critical point; measurement of thermodynamic functions in the critical region; experimental values of the critical exponents; and scaling of the free energy. The change of thermodynamic functions with composition is the subject of the next two chapters, followed by an analysis of fluid mixtures at high pressures. The final chapter is devoted to the statistical thermodynamics of fluids and mixtures, paying particular attention to the thermodynamic properties in terms of the forces between the molecules; the balance of intermolecular potentials between like and unlike molecules; and phase behavior. This monograph will be of interest to students and researchers in the fields of chemistry and chemical engineering.

High Pressure Technology

Author: Spain
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9780824765910
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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High pressure technology is used so extensively that it is almost impossible to catalogue the manyways in which our lives are enhanced by it. From pneumatic tires and household water supplies tomaterials such as crystals, plastics, and even synthetic diamond, there are countless materialsfabricated or shaped using high pressure technology. High Pressure Technology (in two volumes)presents the most up-to-date information available on the main features of this broad technology andthe processes which utilize it.Volume I: Equipment Design, Materials, and Properties covers three broad areas: the general operationof high pressure systems, including standard operating procedures and safety codes and measures;the technology of high pressure systems, such as components, vessel design, and materials of construction;and applied science at high pressure, including the properties of fluids and solids andmechanical properties. Volume II: Applications and Processes covers processes at high pressure andencompasses such topics as: catalytic chemical synthesis; polymerization; phase changes; criticalphenomena; liquefaction of gases; synthesis of single-crystal materials, diamond, and superhardmaterials; isostatic compacting; isostatic hot-pressing; hydrostatic forming of metals; hydraulic cutting;and applications of shock techniques.Written by recognized authorities in industry, government laboratories, and universities, High PressureTechnology is essential reading for the industrial practitioner, high pressure engineer, and researchscientist. In addition, it is a valuable textbook for students in mechanical, chemical, and materialsengineering courses.

Adsorption and Phase Behaviour in Nanochannels and Nanotubes

Author: Lawrence J. Dunne
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9789048124817
Format: PDF, Docs
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Channels of nanotubular dimensions exist in a variety of materials (examples are carbon nanotubes and the nanotubular channels of zeolites and zeotypes) and show promise for numerous applications due to their unique properties. One of their most important properties is their capacity to adsorb molecules and these may exist in a variety of phases. "Adsorption and Phase Behaviour in Nanochannels and Nanotubes" provides an excellent review of recent and current work on adsorption on nanometerials. It is an impressive collection of papers dealing with the adsorption and phase behaviour in nanoporous materials from both experimental and theoretical perspectives. "Adsorption and Phase Behaviour in Nanochannels and Nanotubes" focuses on carbon nanotubes as well as zeolites and related materials.

Thermodynamik der Mischphasen

Author: Rudolf Haase
Publisher: Springer-Verlag
ISBN: 3662225468
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Durch den Titel "Thermodynamik der Mischphasen" soll derjenige Teil der klassischen Thermodynamik gekennzeichnet werden, der sich auf Systeme bezieht, die aus einem oder mehreren homogenen Körpern be stehen und zwei oder mehr Stoffe enthalten. Oberflächenerscheinungen, anisotrope Körper und äußere Kraftfelder sind dabei von der Betrach tung ausgeschlossen. Es werden jedoch die wichtigsten Gesetzmäßig keiten der Einstoffsysteme behandelt, da sie zum Verständnis der Grund lagen und als einfache Beispiele für kompliziertere Gesetze unentbehrlich sind. Ebenso sind chemische Reaktionen und galvanische Ketten in der vorliegenden Darstellung enthalten. Mit dem Untertitel soll zum Ausdruck gebracht werden, daß die Grundlagen der Thermodynamik ausführlich erörtert werden und nicht anderen Büchern entnommen zu werden brauchen. Ich habe mich be müht, die Darstellung der Grundlagen so allgemein zu halten, daß sie als Einführung in das Gesamtgebiet der Thermodynamik dienen kann. Dabei wurde eine kritisch-axiomatische Darstellungsweise der Hauptsätze nicht gescheut, obwohl hier manche Schwierigkeiten sowohl sachlicher als auch didaktischer Art liegen. An zwei Stellen des Buches(§ 19 und Anhang 4) finden sich Exkurse in das Gebiet der "Thermodynamik der irreversiblen Prozesse". Vom 4. Kapitel an war aus Platzmangel eine Begrenzung des Stoffes erforderlich: Es konnten Systeme mit drei und mehr Komponenten nur bei den grundlegenden Gesetzmäßigkeiten, nicht aber bei den speziellen Ansätzen für die thermodynamischen Funktionen berücksichtigt werden. Trotzdem hoffe ich, alle Klassen von Mischphasen in einigermaßen aus geglichenem Verhältnis beschrieben zu haben.

Measurement of the Thermodynamic Properties of Multiple Phases

Author: Ron D. Weir
Publisher: Gulf Professional Publishing
ISBN: 9780444519771
Format: PDF, Mobi
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This volume is another in the series of IUPAC sponsored monographs that summarize the state of knowledge with respect to experimental techniques in thermochemistry and thermodynamics. Following volume VI, Measurement of Thermodynamic Properties of Single Phases, VI, this book contains descriptions of recent developments in the techniques for measurement of thermodynamic quantities for multiple phases of pure fluids as well mixtures over a wide range of conditions. The precision and accuracy of results obtained from each method was regarded as an essential element in each description. Throughout the text, the quantities, units and symbols are those defined by IUPAC for use in the international community. Measurement of Thermodynamic Properties of Multiple Phases, Volume VII is an invaluable reference source to researchers and graduate students. Describes the latest techniques for studying multiple phases of pure component systems, using quantities, units and symbols as defined by IUPAC for use in the international community Illustrates the measurement techniques to obtain activity coefficients, interfacial tension and critical parameters An invaluable reference source to researchers and graduate students