Hindi Is Our Ground English Is Our Sky

Author: Chaise LaDousa
Publisher: Berghahn Books
ISBN: 178238233X
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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A sea change has occurred in the Indian economy in the last three decades, spurring the desire to learn English. Most scholars and media venues have focused on English exclusively for its ties to processes of globalization and the rise of new employment opportunities. The pursuit of class mobility, however, involves Hindi as much as English in the vast Hindi-Belt of northern India. Schools are institutions on which class mobility depends, and they are divided by Hindi and English in the rubric of "medium," the primary language of pedagogy. This book demonstrates that the school division allows for different visions of what it means to belong to the nation and what is central and peripheral in the nation. It also shows how the language-medium division reverberates unevenly and unequally through the nation, and that schools illustrate the tensions brought on by economic liberalization and middle-class status.

Routledge Handbook of Education in India

Author: Krishna Kumar
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
ISBN: 1351608525
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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This comprehensive handbook introduces the reader to the education system in India in terms of its structural features, its relations with society and culture, and the debates that have shaped present-day policy ethos. Expert scholars provide a lucid analysis of complex themes such as the equal distribution of educational opportunities, legal provisions shaping the opportunity structure, and curricular issues in major areas of knowledge. The volume provides a general overview of India’s education system and examines key and current issues that face higher and school education, the examination system, disciplines of social sciences, curriculum, teachers, law, coaching and unemployment. This handbook will serve as a valuable resource and guide to anyone seeking authentic information about India’s contemporary educational challenges in relation to its society, economy and politics. It will be useful to scholars and researchers of education, public policy and administration, sociology and political studies as well as practitioners, think-tanks, those in media, government and NGOs.

India and South Africa

Author: Javed Majeed
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317294130
Format: PDF, Kindle
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South Africa and India constitute two key nodes in the global south and have inspired new modes of non-Western transnational history. Themes include anti-imperial movements; Gandhian ideas; comparisons of race and caste; Afro-Asian ideals; Indian Ocean public spheres. This volume extends these debates into the cultural and linguistic terrain. The book combines the methods of Indian Ocean studies and Comparative Cultural Studies, both committed to moving beyond the nation state. Case studies explore classics and concomitant ideas of civilisation, colonial linguistics and the history of languages, and theatre. Topics include the use of classics by colonisers and the colonised in British India and South Africa differences between South African Indian English and Indian English how the Linguistic Survey of India conflicted with colonial and nationalist mappings of India and its references to African languages the rise of ‘Hinglish’ in contemporary India a South African play dealing with African-Indian interactions. This bookw as published as a special issue of African Studies.

The Oxford Handbook of Language Policy and Planning

Author: James W. Tollefson
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0190877057
Format: PDF, Mobi
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This Handbook provides a state-of-the-art account of research in language policy and planning (LPP). Through a critical examination of LPP, the Handbook offers new direction for a field in theoretical and methodological turmoil as a result of the socio-economic, institutional, and discursive processes of change taking place under the conditions of Late Modernity. Late Modernity refers to the widespread processes of late capitalism leading to the selective privatization of services (including education), the information revolution associated with rapidly changing statuses and functions of languages, the weakening of the institutions of nation-states (along with the strengthening of non-state actors), and the fragmentation of overlapping and competing identities associated with new complexities of language-identity relations and new forms of multilingual language use. As an academic discipline in the social sciences, LPP is fraught with tensions between these processes of change and the still-powerful ideological framework of modern nationalism. It is an exciting and energizing time for LPP research. This Handbook propels the field forward, offering a dialogue between the two major historical trends in LPP associated with the processes of Modernity and Late Modernity: the focus on continuity behind the institutional policies of the modern nation-state, and the attention to local processes of uncertainty and instability across different settings resulting from processes of change. The Handbook takes great strides toward overcoming the long-standing division between "top-down" and "bottom-up" analysis in LPP research, setting the stage for theoretical and methodological innovation. Part I defines alternative theoretical and conceptual frameworks in LPP, emphasizing developments since the ethnographic turn, including: ethnography in LPP; historical-discursive approaches; ethics, normative theorizing, and transdisciplinary methods; and the renewed focus on socio-economic class. Part II examines LPP against the background of influential ideas about language shaped by the institutions of the nation-state, with close attention to the social position of minority languages and specific communities facing profound language policy challenges. Part III investigates the turmoil and tensions that currently characterize LPP research under conditions of Late Modernity. Finally, Part IV presents an integrative summary and directions for future LPP research.

Legitimising Standard Languages

Author: Nirmali Goswami
Publisher: SAGE Publishing India
ISBN: 9386446537
Format: PDF, Docs
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This book employs an ethnographic approach to explore the reproduction of class, status, and ethnic identities through the schooling process. Legitimising Standard Languages: Perspectives from a School in Banaras focuses on the introduction of official languages in schools. The primary objective of this work is to look at the socio-economic backgrounds of administrators, teachers, and students and their families vis-à-vis their influence on the languages in their lives, both in and outside school. It examines how the dominant languages are transmitted, transacted and negotiated in modern institutions. The author puts forth the cultural consequences of standardising and legitimising languages in educational institutions in a society where variability and diversity have otherwise been the norm.

Author: Αντουάν ντε Σαιντ-Εξυπερύ
Publisher: Pelekanos Books
ISBN: 960400946X
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Γεννημένος στη Λυών στη Γαλλία, το 1900, ο Antoine de Saint-Exupéry θεωρούσε τον εαυτό του πιλότο πάνω απ’ όλα. Σε διάστημα είκοσι χρόνων, πραγματοποίησε πλήθος αποστολών χαρτογράφησης και ταχυδρομικών πτήσεων για εμπορικές αεροπορικές εταιρείες. Το θέμα των αερομεταφορών αποτέλεσε σταθμό στην επαγγελματική του πορεία και σημείο έναρξης στις λογοτεχνικές του αναζητήσεις. Η συγγραφή του Μικρού Πρίγκιπα ξεκινά κατά τη διάρκεια του Β΄ Παγκοσμίου Πολέμου, όταν ο Saint-Exupéry αναγκάζεται να εγκαταλείψει την αεροπορία, μετά την εισβολή της Γερμανίας στα γαλλικά εδάφη, και να βρει καταφύγιο στη Νέα Υόρκη. Το στοιχείο ακριβώς της νοσταλγίας της παιδικής ηλικίας μέσα στον Μικρό Πρίγκιπα φανερώνει την έντονη επιθυμία του Saint-Exupéry να επιστρέψει στη Γαλλία καθώς και την ελπίδα του αυτό να συμβεί σε καιρό ειρήνης. Η υπόθεση του Μικρού Πρίγκιπα διαδραματίζεται στην έρημο Σαχάρα. To αεροπλάνο τού αφηγητή-πιλότου έχει συντριβεί στην έρημο. Ο ίδιος έχει μείνει με ελάχιστη τροφή και νερό. Προσπαθώντας να εκτιμήσει τις αντικειμενικές δυσκολίες της συντριβής, προσεγγίζεται από τον Μικρό Πρίγκιπα, ένα σοβαρό μικρό ξανθό αγόρι που του ζητά να του ζωγραφίσει ένα αρνάκι. Ο αφηγητής απαντάει θετικά στο αίτημα του περίεργου μικρού που στέκεται απέναντί του. Σύντομα γίνονται φίλοι και ο Μικρός Πρίγκιπας πληροφορεί τον πιλότο, ότι κατάγεται από έναν μικρό πλανήτη, τον αστεροειδή 325, του μιλά για τα μπαομπάμπ και τα ηφαίστεια του τόπου του αλλά και για το μυστηριώδες τριαντάφυλλο που φύτρωσε κάποια στιγμή στον πλανήτη του. Του μιλά ακόμη για τη φιλία τους και για το ψέμα που το έπιασε να του λέει και που στάθηκε αφορμή για το ταξίδι του σε άλλους πλανήτες. Ο μικρός ταξιδιώτης, συχνά σαστισμένος από τη συμπεριφορά των μεγάλων, γίνεται καθολικό και διαχρονικό σύμβολο αθωότητας και αγάπης, υπευθυνότητας και αφοσίωσης. Στο πρόσωπό του αναγνωρίζουμε τη διορατικότητα της παιδικής ηλικίας που στους μεγάλους βρίσκεται σε χειμερία νάρκη. Τα παιδιά αναζητούν την ουσία με την καρδιά, όχι με τα μάτια…

Author: Уильям Шекспир
Publisher: Litres
ISBN: 5040868839
Format: PDF, Kindle
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