Historical Dictionary of the Czech State

Author: Rick Fawn
Publisher: Rowman & Littlefield
ISBN: 0810856484
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Czechoslovakia has been at the center of some of the most difficult - and tragic-episodes of modern European history: its sacrifice to Nazi Germany at Munich, the Communist Coup of 1948, and the military crushing of the Prague Spring. It has also enacted momentous change almost magically, as in the peaceful overthrow of communism in 1989 and then the negotiated end to the country in 1992. Czechoslovak history has consequently produced enduring political metaphors for our times, such as the Velvet Revolution and Velvet Divorce. This second edition of the Historical Dictionary of the Czech State has been thoroughly updated and greatly expanded. Featuring a chronology, introductory essay, appendix, bibliography, and hundreds of cross-referenced dictionary entries, this detailed, authoritative reference provides descriptions of the Czechs as a people; the territory they inhabit; their social, cultural, political, and economic developments throughout history; and their interactions with neighbors and the wider world.

Historical Dictionary of Austria

Author: Paula Sutter Fichtner
Publisher: Scarecrow Press
ISBN: 9780810863101
Format: PDF
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Austrians today often seem to believe that they have two histories. One is their republican present; the other, the centuries that their forebears spent as part of the multi-ethnic Habsburg Empire. Contemporary Austria is a fixture among Europe's democracies. Yet, it did not achieve this state easily: World War I, the unification with Germany in 1938, and World War II were catastrophes for Austria. In 1995, it became part of the European Union, and its government, culture, and egalitarian economy are far cries from the monarchical and highly stratified society of the old Empire. The second edition of the Historical Dictionary of Austria has been thoroughly updated and greatly expanded. Through its chronology, introductory essay, appendix, bibliography, and hundreds of cross-referenced dictionary entries, greater attention has been given to foreign affairs, economic institutions and policies, social issues, religion, and politics.

Russia and Eastern Europe

Author: Helen F. Sullivan
Publisher: Libraries Unlimited
ISBN: 9781563087363
Format: PDF, Kindle
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This timely guide focuses on books that deal with the major historical occurrences that have impacted Russia and Eastern Europe, including the transition from Socialism to market economics, the civil war in the Yugoslav peninsula, and the Holocaust, featuring annotations of works representative of the time and culture. Titles are arranged by country of origin and subject area. An excellent resource for academic librarians, scholars, students, and anyone interested in the region.

One Europe Many Nations

Author: James Minahan
Publisher: Greenwood Publishing Group
ISBN: 9780313309847
Format: PDF, Docs
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Explains how so-called Old World groups continue to dominate world headlines and present the world with some of its most intractable conflicts.

Historical Dictionary of the Gypsies Romanies

Author: Donald Kenrick
Publisher: Scarecrow Press
ISBN: 0810864401
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Originating in India, the Gypsies arrived in Europe around the 14th century, spreading not only across the entirety of the continent but also immigrating to the Americas. The first Gypsy migration included farmworkers, blacksmiths, and mercenary soldiers, as well as musicians, fortune-tellers, and entertainers. At first, they were generally welcome as an interesting diversion to the dull routine of that period. Soon, however, they attracted the antagonism of the governing powers, as they have continually done throughout the following centuries. The second edition of the Historical Dictionary of the Gypsies (Romanies) seeks to end such prejudice by clarifying the facts about this nomadic people. Through a list of acronyms, a chronology, an introductory essay, a bibliography, and hundreds of cross-referenced dictionary entries on significant persons, places, events, institutions, and aspects of culture, society, economy, and politics, the history of the Gypsies and their culture is told.

The A to Z of Slovakia

Author: Stanislav J. Kirschbaum
Publisher: Rowman & Littlefield
ISBN: 0810872153
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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The A to Z of Slovakia offers an up to date series of cross-referenced dictionary entries on Slovak political, social, and economic development since the creation of the second Slovak Republic in 1993 until its admission into the European Union in 2004. It includes all of the political actors: the presidents, prime ministers, and party leaders, and many leading academics and cultural personalities, including those from the national minorities. It also contains entries on the various institutions of the Slovak Republic like the judiciary, the armed forces, the media, and parliamentary committees as well as entries that explain Slovakia's position and role in international organizations like NATO and the European Union. The historical survey explains how Slovakia, in its post-Communist transformation, was almost excluded, but in the end became a full member of these two institutions.

Miniature Empires

Author: James Minahan
Publisher: Greenwood Publishing Group
ISBN: 9780313306105
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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An essential guide to the new states, ignored or suppressed during the Cold War, and the nations that dwell in their borders.

Historical Dictionary of the Green Movement

Author: Miranda Schreurs
Publisher: Scarecrow Press
ISBN: 0810864347
Format: PDF, ePub
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Human beings have been concerned about nature and their place in it for millennia. Disquiet about the consequences of human action on the natural environment date back to the ancient Greeks and Romans. The efforts of the green movement can be traced back to the nineteenth century. In this period, individuals, groups, and organizations began campaigning for the conservation and preservation of natural areas and the protection of wildlife species. Efforts to combat pollution also began. It was not until the 1960s, however, that the green movement in its more modern incarnation emerged. The green movements that arose at this time maintained the concerns with conservation, preservation, and industrial pollution held by earlier generations, but added to their agenda new issues, including justice, equality, participatory democracy, and sustainability. The second edition of the Historical Dictionary of the Green Movement provides a detailed and comprehensive overview of green parties and movements, green issues, and green concepts. This is done through a chronology, an introductory essay, a bibliography, and hundreds of cross-referenced dictionary entries on countries in the world where green parties or proto-parties have formed, green movement organizations, major international environmental conferences, and green concepts. This useful reference will be greatly valued by students, academics, journalists, and policymakers alike.

Historical Dictionary of Belarus

Author: Vitali Silitski
Publisher:
ISBN:
Format: PDF, Kindle
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The political map of Eastern Europe changed dramatically in December 1991 when the leaders of Belarus, Russia, and Ukraine huddled together in a Bielavie?a Forest retreat and decided to dissolve the 15 union republics, which composed the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR). One of those republics was the Belorussian Soviet Socialist Republic (BSSR). A United Nations member since 1945, Belarus has a rich cultural heritage that is seen as a promising base for the development of a solid national identity and for real independence. It is this cultural heritage and sense of history that nourish the ongoing efforts of the nationalist minority, as well as the larger democratic opposition, to resist the regime of President Alaksandr Luka?enka who is bent on restoring ties to Russia. Thus Belarus, with its burdens of the past and potential for the future, finds itself in a struggle that will affect not only its own destiny, but also the international structure of Eastern Europe. The second edition of the Historical Dictionary of Belarus through its chronology, introductory essays, appendixes, map, bibliography, and hundreds of cross-referenced dictionary entries on important persons, places, events, and institutions and significant political, economic, social, and cultural aspects traces Belarus' history and provides a compass for the direction the country is heading."