Historical Dictionary of Journalism

Author: Ross Eaman
Publisher: Scarecrow Press
ISBN: 9780810862890
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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Journalism is the discipline of gathering, writing, and reporting news, and it includes the process of editing and presenting news articles. Journalism applies to various media, including but not limited to newspapers, magazines, radio, television, and the internet. The word 'journalist' started to become common in the early 18th century to designate a new kind of writer, about a century before 'journalism' made its appearance to describe what those writers produced. Though varying in form from one age and society to another, it gradually distinguished itself from other forms of writing through its focus on the present, its eye-witness perspective, and its reliance on everyday language. The Historical Dictionary of Journalism relates how journalism has evolved over the centuries. This is done through a chronology, an introductory essay, a bibliography, and hundreds of cross-referenced dictionary entries on the different styles of journalism, the different types of media, and important writers and editors.

Historical Dictionary of the Dirty Wars

Author: David Kohut
Publisher: Scarecrow Press
ISBN: 9780810873742
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Unlike a conventional war waged against a standing army, a 'dirty war' is waged against individuals, groups, or ideas considered subversive. Originally associated with Argentina's military regime from 1976-1983, the term has since been applied to neighboring dictatorships during the period. Indeed, it has become a byword for state-sponsored repression anywhere in the world. The first edition of this reference illustrated the concept by describing the regimes of Argentina, Chile (1973-1990), and Uruguay (1973-1985), which tortured, murdered, and disappeared thousands of people in the name of anticommunism while thousands more were driven into exile. The second edition expands the scope to include Bolivia (1971-1982), Brazil (1964-1985), and Paraguay (1954-1989). In mid-1975 the six countries joined forces, creating Operation Condor, a top-secret military network that hunted down one another's political enemies. This second edition of Historical Dictionary of 'The Dirty Wars' focuses on the period 1954-1990 in South America, when authoritarian regimes waged war on subversion, both real and imagined. This is done through a chronology, an introductory essay, a bibliography, and over 400 cross-referenced dictionary entries on the countries; guerrilla and political movements; prominent guerrilla, human-rights, military, and political figures; local, regional, and international human-rights organizations; and artistic figures (filmmakers, novelists, and playwrights) whose works attempt to represent or resist the period of repression.

Historical Dictionary of the Cold War

Author: Joseph Smith
Publisher: Historical Dictionaries of War
ISBN: 9781442281851
Format: PDF
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This second edition of Historical Dictionary of the Cold War contains a chronology, an introduction, and a bibliography. The dictionary section has over 400 cross-referenced entries on important personalities, crucial countries and peripheral conflicts, the increasingly lethal weapons systems, and the various political and military strategies.

Historical Dictionary of Law Enforcement

Author: Mitchel P. Roth
Publisher: Greenwood Publishing Group
ISBN: 9780313305603
Format: PDF, ePub
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Covers the history of law enforcement from policing under Caesar Augustus to such present-day events as Rodney King and the LAPD.

Historical Dictionary of Iraq

Author: Edmund A. Ghareeb
Publisher: Scarecrow Press
ISBN: 9780810865686
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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Iraq, the land of Hamurabi and Harun al-Rashid, has played a long and unique role in the history of human civilization. The oldest civilization known to man evolved on the shores of its twin rivers, the Tigris and the Euphrates. The great cities of antiquity-Uruk, Ur, Akkad, Babylon, Basra, Mawsil, and Baghdad-were major centers of high culture and political power for much of the course of human history. This reference begins with the earliest civilizations and covers the many periods that followed, ranging from the history of ancient Mesopotamia to the Abbasid Empire to present-day Iraq. Included are a historical overview; a country profile; a review of the economy, oil, fauna, and political institution; coverage of the Iran-Iraq War; and coverage of the Kuwait invasion and the second Gulf War and other conflicts. The major ethnic groups such as the Kurds, the Turkumans and the Assyrians, Islam and Muslim sects, Christianity and Christian sects, as well as other religious groups are profiled. Dictionary entries also highlight the main political, religious, and ideological parties, groups, and organizations; major historical personalities; languages; literature; and cultural elements. A broad range of topics, both ancient and modern, are dealt with throughout the introduction and the dictionary, and a comprehensive bibliography complements this extensive historical reference.

Historical Dictionary of the Democratic Republic of the Congo

Author: Emizet Francois Kisangani
Publisher: Scarecrow Press
ISBN: 9780810863255
Format: PDF, Kindle
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One of Africa's largest, most populated, and generously endowed countries, the Democratic Republic of the Congo has both dominated the surrounding region and been greatly affected by it as well. The Democratic Republic of the Congo has undergone a long period of war, and it appears that political renewal and economic recovery are bleak. Human security is likely to remain a distant dream for many years to come due to the prevalence and intensity of rape and other sexual violence, which is described as the worst in the world. The third edition of the Historical Dictionary of the Democratic Republic of the Congo looks back at the nearly 48 years of independence, over a century of colonial rule, and even earlier kingdoms and groups that shared the territory. This is done through a chronology, an introductory essay, a bibliography, and over 800 cross-referenced dictionary entries on civil wars, mutinies, notable people, places, events, and cultural practices.

Historical Dictionary of the Spanish American War

Author: Donald H. Dyal
Publisher: Greenwood Publishing Group
ISBN: 9780313288524
Format: PDF, ePub
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Foreshadowing the twentieth-century experience, the Spanish American War was America's first modern foreign war. Catapulting the United States into an international world power, it had lasting international implications. Besides America's acquisition of Puerto Rico, the Philippines, Hawaii, and Guam, the war led the United States to take to the international stage, confronting Germany and Japan, and creating a diplomatic bridge between Great Britain and the United States. For Spain the 1898-1899 conflict was the death knell of empire. This volume provides easily accessible information on the naval and army operations, Spanish operations, and the political background to the military events, with an emphasis on future foreign affairs.