Horizontal Inequalities and Post Conflict Development

Author: Frances Stewart
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 0230348629
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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This book evaluates the extent to which post-conflict reconstruction has addressed problems of horizontal inequalities through country case studies on Burundi, Rwanda, Nepal, Peru, Guatemala, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Afghanistan, and four thematic studies on macro-economic policies, privatisation, PRSP's, and employment generation.

Preventing Violent Conflict in Africa

Author: Y. Mine
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 113732970X
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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Horizontal inequalities are root causes of violent conflict in Africa. Yet, people take actions not because of statistical data on inequalities, of which they might not be aware, but because of injustices they perceive. This volume analyses the results of original surveys with over 3,000 respondents in African cities and towns, exposing clear discrepancies between objective inequalities and people's subjective perceptions. The contributors examine experiences in country pairs and probe into the reasons why neighbouring countries, sharing common historical traits, sometimes took contrasting pathways of peace and violent conflict. Combining quantitative analysis and qualitative anatomy of historical experiences of conflict and reconciliation in Rwanda, Burundi, Ghana, Côte d'Ivoire, South Africa, Zimbabwe, Uganda, Tanzania, Kenya and Nigeria, the study brings forward a set of policy recommendations for development practitioners. This work further addresses the issue of institutional choice and reveals how sustainable power-sharing and decentralisation contribute to political stability in Africa.

Horizontal Inequalities Political Environment and Civil Conflict

Author: Gudrun Østby
Publisher: World Bank Publications
ISBN:
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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Several studies of civil war have concluded that economic inequality between individuals does not increase the risk of internal armed conflict. This is perhaps not so surprising. Even though an individual may feel frustrated if he is poor compared with other individuals in society, he will not start a rebellion on his own. Civil wars are organized group conflicts, not a matter of individuals randomly committing violence against each other. Hence, we should not neglect the group aspect of human well-being and conflict. Systematic inequalities that coincide with ethnic, religious, or geographical cleavages in a country are often referred to as horizontal inequalities (or inter-group inequalities). Case studies of particular countries as well as some statistical studies have found that such inequalities between identity groups tend to be associated with a higher risk of internal conflict. But the emergence of violent group mobilization in a country with sharp horizontal inequalities may depend on the characteristics of the political regime. For example, in an autocracy, grievances that stem from group inequalities are likely to be large and frequent, but state repression may prevent them from being openly expressed. This paper investigates the relationship between horizontal inequalities, political environment, and civil war in developing countries. Based on national survey data from 55 countries it calculates welfare inequalities between ethnic, religious, and regional groups for each country using indicators such as household assets and educational levels. All the inequality measures, particularly regional inequality, are positively associated with higher risks of conflict outbreak. And it seems that the conflict potential of regional inequality is stronger for pure democratic and intermediate regimes than for pure autocratic regimes. Institutional arrangements also seem to matter.

Ethnicity and the Persistence of Inequality

Author: R. Thorp
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 0230293131
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Understanding why inequality is so great and has persevered for centuries in a number of Latin American countries requires tools that go beyond economics. Investigating the case of Peru, this book explores how inequality is embedded in institutions that constitute the interface between the economy, the polity and geography of the country.

Routledge Handbook of Civil Wars

Author: Edward Newman
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1136255788
Format: PDF
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This comprehensive new Handbook explores the significance and nature of armed intrastate conflict and civil war in the modern world. Civil wars and intrastate conflict represent the principal form of organised violence since the end of World War II, and certainly in the contemporary era. These conflicts have a huge impact and drive major political change within the societies in which they occur, as well as on an international scale. The global importance of recent intrastate and regional conflicts in Afghanistan, Pakistan, Iraq, Somalia, Nepal, Cote d'Ivoire, Syria and Libya – amongst others – has served to refocus academic and policy interest upon civil war. Drawing together contributions from key thinkers in the field who discuss the sources, causes, duration, nature and recurrence of civil wars, as well as their political meaning and international impact, the Handbook is organised into five key parts: Part I: Understanding and Explaining Civil Wars: Theoretical and Methodological Debates Part II: The Causes of Civil Wars Part III: The Nature and Impact of Civil Wars Part IV: International Dimensions Part V: Termination and Resolution of Civil Wars Covering a wide range of topics including micro-level issues as well as broader debates, Routledge Handbook of Civil Wars will set a benchmark for future research in the field. This volume will be of much interest to students of civil wars and intrastate conflict, ethnic conflict, political violence, peace and conflict studies, security studies and IR in general.

Understanding Collective Political Violence

Author: Y. Guichaoua
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 0230348319
Format: PDF
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Understanding Collective Political Violence offers a unique view on contemporary processes of violent political mobilization across continents: Africa, Latin America, South East Asia and the Middle East. It pays particular attention to unconventional combatants such as women or children and details the drivers of their violent engagement.

Affirmative Action in Plural Societies

Author: Graham Brown
Publisher: Palgrave Macmillan
ISBN: 1137271558
Format: PDF
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Across the developmental spectrum, the prospects and problems of 'affirmative action' are increasingly important issues facing multi-ethnic countries. Drawing on philosophy, economics and sociology, the contributors explore the merits and demerits of affirmative action, and explain why affirmative action may be needed in countries facing large inequalities across ethnic, religious or racial groups. They analyse the origin, nature and consequences of affirmative action in Brazil, South Africa, the United States, Malaysia, Northern Ireland and Nigeria. Evaluating alternatives, they seek to provide guidance on the design of policies in different circumstances, with the aim of reducing horizontal inequalities, while minimising possible negative consequences.

Gewalt und Gesellschaftsordnungen

Author: Douglass Cecil North
Publisher: Mohr Siebeck
ISBN: 9783161505904
Format: PDF, Docs
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English summary: This book integrates the problem of violence in societies in a larger historical and social science context, showing how economic and political behaviour are closely linked. Most societies limit violence by political manipulation of the economy to create privileged interests. Privileges limit the use of violence by powerful individuals, but hinder both economic and political development of such natural states . In contrast, modern societies are characterized by open access to economic and political organizations, thereby fostering political and economic competition (democracy and markets) and general development. Douglass C. North, John Joseph Wallis, and Barry R. Weingast provide a framework for understanding the two types of orders and show in which ways a number of countries have achieved the transition between them. German description: Alle Gesellschaften mussen sich mit der Moglichkeit wie der Realitat von Gewalt auseinandersetzen; sie tun das auf unterschiedliche Art. Douglass C. North, John Joseph Wallis und Barry R. Weingast stellen das Problem der Gewalt in einen grosseren sozialwissenschaftlichen und historischen Zusammenhang und zeigen, wie eng wirtschaftliches und politisches Verhalten verbunden sind. Die meisten aus der Geschichte bekannten Gesellschaften, von den Autoren als naturliche Staaten bezeichnet, begrenzen Gewaltanwendung vorbeugend, indem sie durch politische Einflussnahme auf die Wirtschaftstatigkeit privilegierte Interessen schaffen. Diese Privilegien reduzieren den Einsatz von Gewalt von Seiten machtiger Einzelner; es wird auf diese Weise jedoch die wirtschaftliche ebenso wie die politische Entwicklung solcher Staaten behindert. Denn fur die grosse Mehrheit der Nicht-Privilegierten ist der Zugang zu Politik und Wirtschaft dadurch beschrankt.Im Unterschied hierzu schaffen moderne Gesellschaften Zugangsfreiheit zu wirtschaftlichen und politischen Organisationen (Unternehmen, Markten, Parlamenten, hoheitlichen Einrichtungen) und fordern damit den politischen wie den wirtschaftlichen Wettbewerb und somit die gesellschaftliche Entwicklung. Das Buch bietet ein gedankliches Gerust zum Verstandnis der zwei Typen von Gesellschaftsordnungen, die es an historischen Beispielen von der romischen Antike bis ins 19. Jahrhundert veranschaulicht. Anhand dieses Konzepts wird erklart, wieso Gesellschaften mit Zugangsfreiheit sowohl politisch wie wirtschaftlich hoher entwickelt sind und auf welche Weise seit dem 19. Jahrhundert rund 25 Lander den Ubergang vom einen Typus zum anderen geschafft haben.

Die dunkle Seite der Demokratie

Author: Michael Mann
Publisher:
ISBN: 9783936096750
Format: PDF
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Mörderische ethnische Säuberungen sind, so die zentrale These Michael Manns in diesem Buch, die dunkle Seite der Demokratie. Ethnische Säuberungen haben sich nicht nur gemeinsam mit dem Prozess der Demokratisierung ausgebreitet, vielmehr haftet dem demokratischen Nationalstaat selbst ein organizistischer Nationalismus an, der danach strebt, demos und ethnos, Staatsvolk und Abstammungsgemeinschaft, deckungsgleich zu machen - wenn nötig mit Gewalt. Michael Mann, Professor für Soziologie an der University of California in Los Angeles, hat eine umfassende Studie des Phänomens der ethnischen Säuberung verfasst, die schon als dichte Beschreibung der wichtigsten Fälle - des Siedlerkolonialismus in Nordamerika, des Massenmordes an den Armeniern, der nationalsozialistischen Vernichtungspolitik, der kommunistischen Gewalt unter Stalin, Mao und Pol Pot, des ethnischen Bürgerkriegs in Jugoslawien, des Genozids in Ruanda - beeindruckt. Die historisch-soziologische Analyse zielt darauf ab, anhand dieser empirischen Daten systematische Erkenntnisse und theoretische Erklärungen herauszuarbeiten. So fragt Michael Mann, wann es zu einer mörderischen ethnischen Säuberung kommt und wann nicht. Wo und wann treten organizistische Vorstellungen von Demokratie auf und wo werden sie gefährlich? Wer sind die Täter und was lässt sie zu Tätern werden, wie normal und gewöhnlich sind sie? Michael Mann nutzt die in seiner Geschichte der Macht destillierte Theorie der Entstehung des modernen Nationalstaats, um ethnische Säuberungen als Entwicklungstendenz der Moderne zu deuten. Gegen eine naive Idealisierung der Demokratie stellt er fest, dass demokratisch verfasste Nationalstaaten auf den Gräbern ethnisch gesäuberter Gebiete errichtet worden sind, und prophezeit, dass zumindest auf der Südhalbkugel der Erde dieser Prozess der Errichtung ethnisch homogener Staaten noch nicht abgeschlossen ist. Seine Analyse bietet jedoch auch historische Gegenbeispiele, wie etwa.