Household Vulnerability and Resilience to Economic Shocks

Author: Simon Feeny
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317121066
Format: PDF, ePub
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Focusing on the vulnerability and resilience to economic shocks at the household level, this book draws on extensive research activities carried out in two Melanesia countries: the Solomon Islands and Vanuatu. In particular, it identifies the household impacts of the recent food, fuel and economic crises. The contributors also examine resilience by identifying how households responded to these recent economic events in order to cope with their impacts. Findings indicate that households are vulnerable to a range of shocks and often struggle to cope with their impacts. Shocks are making it harder for households to meet their basic needs. Households in Melanesia are facing increasing demands for money, in particular for school fees, basic foodstuffs and customary obligations. Concurrently, there are limited domestic opportunities for formal employment. Traditional social support networks are strong and are an important form of resilience. However, there is evidence that they are disintegrating. Of particular focus are the gendered impacts. Women are found to bear a disproportionate share of the burden in adjusting to household shocks. The authors highlight key areas in which public policy and development programmes can reduce household vulnerability and increase their resilience to future economic shocks.

Measuring Vulnerability in Developing Countries

Author: Wim Naude
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 131798451X
Format: PDF, ePub
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In all of the major challenges facing the world currently, whether it be climate change, terrorism and conflict, or urbanization and demographic change, no progress is possible without the alleviation of poverty. New approaches in development economics have in recent years started from the premise that we cannot successfully deal with poverty unless we also deal with vulnerability—but not only vulnerability to income poverty but also vulnerability to various others hazards—such as climate, conflict, macroeconomic shocks and natural disasters. This book provide insights into new approaches in conceptualising and measuring vulnerability. It includes chapters dealing with advanced issues such as the compilation of economic vulnerability indices (EVIs) on a macro-level, of conceptualizing and measuring local vulnerability across regions in a country, and of measuring the flip-side of vulnerability, namely resilience. The book also explores the sensitivities of the various measurements of vulnerability to vulnerability lines, poverty lines, and permanent income, with consideration to some of the most vulnerable groups in developing countries. Overall, the contributions in the book consolidate new approaches as far as the concept and measurement of vulnerability on different levels and outcomes are concerned, and note directions for future research. This book was published as a special issue of Oxford Development Studies.

Health Economic Development and Household Poverty

Author: Sara Bennett
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1134287674
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Accessible and edited by authors based at a top institution, this book provides readers with an excellent summary in an easy-to-read style of this burgeoning field of research. In this volume Bennett, Gilson and Mills have gathered together essays written by academics and experts in the fields of health policy and economic development, each underscoring the need for political commitment to meet the needs of the poor and the development of strategies to build this commitment, covering: evidence regarding the links between health, economic development and household poverty evidence on the extent to which health care systems address the needs of the poor and the near poor innovative measures to make health care interventions widely available to the poor. Current and topical, this book is of great relevance to policy makers and practitioners in the field of international health and development and researchers engaged with global health and poverty as well as being ideal reading for students of international health and development.

Resilience A primer

Author: Hoddinott, John
Publisher: Intl Food Policy Res Inst
ISBN:
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Recurrent humanitarian crises have led many development actors to begin thinking differently about development issues. Rather than placing humanitarian assistance, governance, food security and nutrition, economic development, and other topics in separate silos, many are using the concept of resilience to join up their myriad activities. Constas, Frankenberger, and Hoddinott wrote, “In a world where conventional approaches to dealing with humanitarian aid and development assistance have been questioned, resilience has captured the attention of many audiences because it provides a new perspective on how to effectively plan for and analyze the effects of shocks and stressors that threaten the well-being of vulnerable populations.” Despite the promise and hype of resilience, or perhaps because of it, a backlash has already begun. Does it really add new and useful understanding to development theory and practice, or is it merely more development jargon? This brief addresses this concern through an overview of what resilience means and how it is conceptualized before discussing implications for measurement and for policy.

Global Migration

Author: K. Khory
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 1137007125
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Immigration today evokes passionate debates over questions of national identity, state sovereignty, and citizenship. Even as capital, goods, and services flow easily over national boundaries, human beings are subjected to intense scrutiny and resistance when crossing borders. In this collection of essays, distinguished scholars probe the challenges and opportunities that global migration presents for individuals, states, and societies grappling with questions of identity, belonging, and citizenship. Multidisciplinary in scope, the book demonstrates how forced and voluntary migrations intersect with global politics, from economic and environmental crises to human rights and security.

Gender shocks and resilience

Author: Kumar, Neha
Publisher: Intl Food Policy Res Inst
ISBN:
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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This brief attempts to unpack the relationship between gender and resilience by reviewing the evidence on men’s and women’s differential exposure to risk and the differential impact of shocks on men and women, and by examining the different types of mechanisms that men and women use to cope with and insure against risk. In reviewing these mechanisms, we assess whether they contribute to building resilience and we suggest gender-sensitive insurance mechanisms that will allow men and women alike to manage and cope with risk and vulnerability.

Aid and Poverty Reduction in Zambia

Author: Oliver S. Saasa
Publisher: Nordic Africa Institute
ISBN: 9789171064899
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Zambia, a once prosperous African country, now has 73 per cent of its people below the poverty line and by the early 1990s, the country was included on the list of the least developed countries. Despite significant aid volumes and structural reforms, the country is getting deeper and deeper into poverty. What is the missing link between aid and positive change? Is the problem mainly that the volume of aid is not sufficient and, as is often heard, more of it would make a difference? Has the sluggish social and economic progress in Zambia been appropriately diagnosed and correct remedies and strategies prescribed? This book attempts to address these and related questions.

Nongovernmental organizations approaches to resilience programming

Author: Frankenberger, Timothy R.
Publisher: Intl Food Policy Res Inst
ISBN:
Format: PDF, ePub
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This brief seeks to enhance our understanding of resilience processes, activities, and outcomes by examining initiatives to enhance resilience capacity that are designed and implemented by nongovernmental organizations (NGOs). It reviews the theories of change and approaches developed by various NGOs that support their resilience programs and the means by which NGOs are measuring program outcomes and impact. The brief also identifies challenges, potential opportunities, and recommendations for improving resilience programming by NGOs.

Measuring resilience in a risky world

Author: Barrett, Christopher B.
Publisher: Intl Food Policy Res Inst
ISBN:
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Much of the world’s chronically poor and malnourished population lives in an increasingly volatile world. The dangerous nexus of climate change, rapid population growth, conflict, and economic stagnation has already pushed several poor regions into states of permanent crisis, even as the rest of the world has enjoyed unprecedented progress against poverty. This disturbing state of affairs, along with our expanded knowledge of the intimate interactions between short-term shocks and long-run development, has catalyzed widespread interest in resilience building and in what a resilience framework implies for our understanding of the causes and consequences of acute vulnerability to natural and man-made disasters. We propose that the development community invest in a new multicountry system of sentinel sites to undertake long-term, high-frequency measurement and analysis of individual, household, and community resilience in the world’s most vulnerable regions.

Assessing household vulnerability to climate change

Author: Temesgen T. Deressa, Rashid M. Hassan, Claudia Ringler
Publisher: Intl Food Policy Res Inst
ISBN:
Format: PDF, Kindle
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This study measures the vulnerability of farmers to climatic extremes such as droughts, floods and hailstorms, by employing the "vulnerability as expected poverty" approach. This approach is based on estimating the probability that a given shock or set of shocks will move household consumption below a given minimum level (such as the consumption poverty line) or force the consumption level to stay below the given minimum if it is already below this level. The utilized data come from a household survey of farmers performed during the 2004/2005 production year in the Nile Basin of Ethiopia. The results show that the farmers' vulnerability is highly sensitive to their minimum daily requirement (poverty line). For instance, when the daily minimum income is fixed at 0.3 United States dollars (USD) per day, only 12.4 percent of farmers are vulnerable to climate extremes, whereas 99 percent of farmers are vulnerable when the minimum requirement is fixed at 2 USD per day. The results further indicate that farmers in kola agro-ecological zones (which are warm and semi-arid) are the most vulnerable to extreme climatic events. Policy-wise, these preliminary results indicate that, keeping other factors constant, increasing the incomes of farmers (with special emphasis on those in kola agro-ecological zones) and enabling them to meet their daily minimum requirements will reduce their vulnerability to climatic extremes.