How Do Judges Decide

Author: Cassia Spohn
Publisher: SAGE
ISBN: 1412961041
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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How are sentences for Federal, State, and Local crimes determined in the United States? Is this process fairly and justly applied to all concerned? How have reforms affected the process over the last 25 years? This text for advanced undergraduate students in criminal justice programs seeks to answer these questions.

Felony Justice

Author: James Eisenstein
Publisher: Lanham, MD : University Press of America
ISBN: 9780819180889
Format: PDF, Mobi
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In a break with prior research, this book compares the disposition of 4500 felony defendants' cases in Baltimore, Chicago and Detroit in 1972, examining the role of judge, prosecutors and defense attorneys by relying on observation and the interview process. Descriptions of the factors shaping the outcomes of preliminary hearings, courtroom dispositions, and sentences rely on multivariate analysis of case and defendant variables drawn from court and prosecutor files. It uses the organizational approach to analyze and interpret the results, providing a model widely used and cited for broader studies. Originally published in 1977 by Little, Brown and Company.

No Equal Justice

Author: David Cole
Publisher: ReadHowYouWant.com
ISBN: 1459604199
Format: PDF, Docs
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First published a decade ago, No Equal Justice is the seminal work on race- and class-based double standards in criminal justice. Hailed as a ''shocking and necessary book'' by The Economist, it has become the standard reference point for anyone trying to understand the fundamental inequalities in the American legal system. The book, written by constitutional law scholar and civil liberties advocate David Cole, was named the best nonfiction book of 1999 by the Boston Book Review and the best book on an issue of national policy by the American Political Science Association. No Equal Justice examines subjects ranging from police behavior and jury selection to sentencing, and argues that our system does not merely fail to live up to the promise of equality, but actively requires double standards to operate. Such disparities, Cole argues, allow the privileged to enjoy constitutional protections from police power without paying the costs associated with extending those protections across the board to minorities and the poor. For this new, tenth-anniversary paperback edition, Cole has completely updated and revised the book, reflecting the substantial changes and developments that have occurred since first publication.

Courts

Author: Cassia Spohn
Publisher: SAGE
ISBN: 1412997186
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Courts: A Text/Reader provides the best of both worlds— authored text sections with carefully selected accompanying readings that illustrate the questions and controversies legal scholars and court researchers are investigating in the 21st century. The articles, from leading journals in criminology and criminal justice, reflect both classic studies of the criminal court system and state-of-the-art research, and often have a policy perspective that makes them more applied, less theoretical, and more interesting to both undergraduate and graduate students.

The Collapse of American Criminal Justice

Author: William J. Stuntz
Publisher: Harvard University Press
ISBN: 0674051750
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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Rule of law has vanished in America’s criminal justice system. Prosecutors decide whom to punish; most accused never face a jury; policing is inconsistent; plea bargaining is rampant; and draconian sentencing fills prisons with mostly minority defendants. A leading criminal law scholar looks to history for the roots of these problems—and solutions.

The Punishment Response

Author: Graeme Newman
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1351475711
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Punishment occupies a central place in our lives and attitudes. We suffer a profound ambivalence about its moral consequences. Persons who have been punished or are liable to be punished have long objected to the legitimacy of punishment. We are all objects of punishment, yet we are also its users. Our ambivalence is so profound that not only do we punish others, but we punish ourselves as well. We view those who submit too willingly to punishment as obedient verging on the groveling coward, and we view those who resist punishment as disobedient, rebels. In The Punishment Response Graeme Newman describes the uses of punishment and how these uses change over time.Some argue that punishment promotes discrimination and divisiveness in society. Others claim that it is through punishment that order and legitimacy are upheld. It is important that punishment is understood as neither one nor the other; it is both. This point, simple though it seems, has never really been addressed. This is why Newman claims we wax and wane in our uses of punishment; why punishing institutions are clogged by bureaucracy; why the death penalty comes and goes like the tide.Graeme Newman emphasizes that punishment is a cultural process and also a mechanism of particular institutions, of which criminal law is but one. Because academic discussions of punishment have been confined to legalistic preoccupations, much of the policy and justification of punishment have been based on discussions of extreme cases. The use of punishment in the sphere of crime is an extreme unto itself, since crime is a minor aspect of daily life. The uses of punishment, and the moral justifications for punishment within the family and school have rarely been considered, certainly not to the exhaustive extent that criminal law has been in this outstanding work.

Unfair

Author: Adam Benforado
Publisher: Crown
ISBN: 0770437761
Format: PDF, Kindle
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"A crusading legal scholar exposes the powerful psychological forces that undermine our criminal justice system--and affect us all Our nation is founded on the notion that the law is impartial, that legal cases are won or lost on the basis of evidence, careful reasoning and nuanced argument. But they may, in fact, turn on the temperature of the courtroom, the camera angle of a defendant's taped confession, or a simple word choice or gesture during a cross-examination. In Unfair, law professor Adam Benforado shines a light on this troubling new research, showing, for example, that people with certain facial features receive longer sentences and that judges are far more likely to grant parole first thing in the morning. In fact, over the last two decades, psychologists and neuroscientists have uncovered many cognitive forces that operate beyond our conscious awareness--and Benforado argues that until we address these hidden biases head-on, the social inequality we see now will only widen, as powerful players and institutions find ways to exploit the weaknesses in our legal system. Weaving together historical examples, scientific studies, and compelling court cases--from the border collie put on trial in Kentucky to the five teenagers who falsely confessed in the Central Park Jogger case--Benforado shows how our judicial processes fail to uphold our values and protect society's weakest members, convicting the innocent while letting dangerous criminals go free. With clarity and passion, he lays out the scope of the problem and proposes a wealth of reforms that could prevent injustice and help us achieve true fairness and equality before the law"--

Just Mercy

Author: Bryan Stevenson
Publisher: Spiegel & Grau
ISBN: 0812994531
Format: PDF
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#1 New York Times Bestseller | Named one of the Best Books of the Year by The New York Times • The Washington Post • The Boston Globe • The Seattle Times • Esquire • Time Winner of the Carnegie Medal for Nonfiction | Winner of the NAACP Image Award for Nonfiction | Winner of a Books for a Better Life Award | Finalist for the Los Angeles Book Prize | Finalist for the Kirkus Reviews Prize | An American Library Association Notable Book A powerful true story about the potential for mercy to redeem us, and a clarion call to fix our broken system of justice—from one of the most brilliant and influential lawyers of our time Bryan Stevenson was a young lawyer when he founded the Equal Justice Initiative, a legal practice dedicated to defending those most desperate and in need: the poor, the wrongly condemned, and women and children trapped in the farthest reaches of our criminal justice system. One of his first cases was that of Walter McMillian, a young man who was sentenced to die for a notorious murder he insisted he didn’t commit. The case drew Bryan into a tangle of conspiracy, political machination, and legal brinksmanship—and transformed his understanding of mercy and justice forever. Just Mercy is at once an unforgettable account of an idealistic, gifted young lawyer’s coming of age, a moving window into the lives of those he has defended, and an inspiring argument for compassion in the pursuit of true justice. Praise for Just Mercy “Every bit as moving as To Kill a Mockingbird, and in some ways more so . . . a searing indictment of American criminal justice and a stirring testament to the salvation that fighting for the vulnerable sometimes yields.”—David Cole, The New York Review of Books “Searing, moving . . . Bryan Stevenson may, indeed, be America’s Mandela.”—Nicholas Kristof, The New York Times “You don’t have to read too long to start cheering for this man. . . . The message of this book . . . is that evil can be overcome, a difference can be made. Just Mercy will make you upset and it will make you hopeful.”—Ted Conover, The New York Times Book Review “Inspiring . . . a work of style, substance and clarity . . . Stevenson is not only a great lawyer, he’s also a gifted writer and storyteller.”—The Washington Post “As deeply moving, poignant and powerful a book as has been, and maybe ever can be, written about the death penalty.”—The Financial Times “Brilliant.”—The Philadelphia Inquirer “Not since Atticus Finch has a fearless and committed lawyer made such a difference in the American South. Though larger than life, Atticus exists only in fiction. Bryan Stevenson, however, is very much alive and doing God’s work fighting for the poor, the oppressed, the voiceless, the vulnerable, the outcast, and those with no hope. Just Mercy is his inspiring and powerful story.”—John Grisham “Bryan Stevenson is one of my personal heroes, perhaps the most inspiring and influential crusader for justice alive today, and Just Mercy is extraordinary. The stories told within these pages hold the potential to transform what we think we mean when we talk about justice.”—Michelle Alexander, author of The New Jim Crow

Justice in America

Author: Mark Peffley
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 0521134757
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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Investigates how and why whites and African Americans have such radically different perceptions of the fairness of the justice system.

Environmental crime

Author: Kathleen F. Brickey
Publisher: Aspen Law & Business
ISBN: 9780735562493
Format: PDF, Kindle
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In this exciting addition to Aspen's Elective Series, Kathleen Brickey, a leading criminal law and white collar crime specialist and author of numerous scholarly publications, offers a unique perspective on the intersection of environmental law and criminal law. Using an interdisciplinary approach, The author covers major environmental and criminal law issues in a clear, concise style that is easily accessible to all students regardless of their backgrounds. An outstanding teaching tool, Environmental Crime is suitable for use in courses or seminars on environmental law, white collar crime, federal criminal law, public policy, and advanced criminal law. This unique book boasts a number of outstanding attributes: Distinguished authorship: As the author of a three-volume treatise and a leading casebook on corporate and white collar crime, Brickey brings exceptional insight and experience To The task. Skillful integration of environmental and white collar crime issues: The book blends topical coverage of key environmental statutes relating to air and water pollution, hazardous waste, and toxic substances with coverage of conventional white collar crime statutes that federal prosecutors often use in tandem with environmental crime charges. Carefully selected materials to enhance teaching and learning: The book skillfully integrates clear and succinct discussions of major environmental and criminal law issues with illustrations, discussion questions, judicial decisions, and case studies designed to stimulate lively classroom discussion. In-depth discussion of enforcement trends: Real world illustrations, combined with the author's practical knowledge of environmental crime prosecutions, give students an excellent grounding in current trends in criminal enforcement practices. Interdisciplinary approach that helps clarify difficult issues: The author adeptly blends legal, environmental, and policy considerations to illustrate environmental crime and criminal enforcement issues, including prosecutorial discretion. Text is appropriate level for all audiences: Environmental Crime is highly readable and accessible to students regardless of their technical or legal backgrounds. Take advantage of Kathleen Brickey's experience and expertise. Environmental Crime is lucid, concise, And The first book intended for law school study that deals exclusively with the subject. it will be an invaluable resource for any criminal law, white collar crime, or environmental law and policy course or seminar.