How Jesus Became God

Author: Bart D. Ehrman
Publisher: Harper Collins
ISBN: 0062252194
Format: PDF, ePub
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New York Times bestselling author and Bible expert Bart Ehrman reveals how Jesus’s divinity became dogma in the first few centuries of the early church. The claim at the heart of the Christian faith is that Jesus of Nazareth was, and is, God. But this is not what the original disciples believed during Jesus’s lifetime—and it is not what Jesus claimed about himself. How Jesus Became God tells the story of an idea that shaped Christianity, and of the evolution of a belief that looked very different in the fourth century than it did in the first. A master explainer of Christian history, texts, and traditions, Ehrman reveals how an apocalyptic prophet from the backwaters of rural Galilee crucified for crimes against the state came to be thought of as equal with the one God Almighty, Creator of all things. But how did he move from being a Jewish prophet to being God? In a book that took eight years to research and write, Ehrman sketches Jesus’s transformation from a human prophet to the Son of God exalted to divine status at his resurrection. Only when some of Jesus’s followers had visions of him after his death—alive again—did anyone come to think that he, the prophet from Galilee, had become God. And what they meant by that was not at all what people mean today. Written for secular historians of religion and believers alike, How Jesus Became God will engage anyone interested in the historical developments that led to the affirmation at the heart of Christianity: Jesus was, and is, God.

How God Became Jesus

Author: Michael F. Bird
Publisher: Zondervan
ISBN: 0310519616
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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In his recent book How Jesus Became God: The Exaltation of a Jewish Preacher From Galilee historian Bart Ehrman explores a claim that resides at the heart of the Christian faith— that Jesus of Nazareth was, and is, God. According to Ehrman, though, this is not what the earliest disciples believed, nor what Jesus claimed about himself. The first response book to this latest challenge to Christianity from Ehrman, How God Became Jesus features the work of five internationally recognized biblical scholars. While subjecting his claims to critical scrutiny, they offer a better, historically informed account of why the Galilean preacher from Nazareth came to be hailed as “the Lord Jesus Christ.” Namely, they contend, the exalted place of Jesus in belief and worship is clearly evident in the earliest Christian sources, shortly following his death, and was not simply the invention of the church centuries later.

A Reader s Guide to Bart Ehrman s How Jesus Became God

Author: Patrick Goggins
Publisher:
ISBN: 9781983032592
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Two stories emerge when discussing How Jesus Became God: The Exaltation of a Jewish Preacher from Galilee by Bart D. Ehrman (New York: HarperOne, 2014). One is the rather dry academic exercise of historical Christology, which is the actual subject of the book, the other is the publisher's anticipation of controversy surrounding a new Ehrman book, simultaneously publishing a separate refutation. Please note that both books, Ehrman's How Jesus Became God, and the refutation, How God Became Jesus, are reviewed in this reader's guide.The first story, historical Christology, is Ehrman's roughly chronological presentation of how the man named Jesus of Nazareth came to be known as God almighty. Christology is the field of theology concerning the Person of the Christ. It recounts the philosophical gymnastics required when, based on the assumption of the physical resurrection, this very real flesh and blood man came to be known as God eternal. Ehrman takes us from the "lower" exaltation Christologies, where Jesus was raised to divinity by God, to the "higher" incarnation Christologies, where Jesus was God himself. This story is complicated by the early schism between the Jews and the Christians, doctrinal differences among Christians, and internal politics of the Roman Empire. While Ehrman's focus is on the intra-Christian debate, his book would have benefitted from a closer analysis of the Jewish-Christian schism and the broader socio-political context in which this debate took place. The second story is how HarperCollins, anticipating controversy, gave a group of orthodox Christian academics advance copies of How Jesus Became God, and with it an opportunity to publish a refutation simultaneously with the publication of Ehrman's book. Is this a publisher who wished to avoid the political controversy that Random House experienced (profitably) with the 2013 publication of Reza Aslan's Zealot: The Life and Times of Jesus of Nazareth? Perhaps. More practically, it may be a publisher who wished to turn one sale into two. The refutation is reviewed in this guide, and can be purchased here. How God Became Jesus: The Real Origins of Belief in Jesus' Divine Nature---A Response to Bart D. Ehrman by Michael Bird, Craig Evans, Simon Gathercole, Charles Hill, and Chris Tilling (Zondervan 2014).This guide has three parts. Part I is a detailed discussion of How Jesus Became God, Part II is a survey of some of the early criticism of the book, including How God Became Jesus, and Part III is an independent criticism and discussion.SPOILER ALERT! This guide discusses many of Ehrman's observations and conclusions. If you are reading or intend to read How Jesus Became God, do yourself a favor, close this window, open a second tab, and purchase the book here. This reader's guide is meant to assist in reading How Jesus Became God critically, not as a substitute for reading the book. This reader's guide will not make sense unless you read it along with, or after reading, How Jesus Became God.Bible citations are to the New Revised Standard Version (NRSV).Patrick Goggins is the author of the best-selling Reader's Guide to Reza Aslan's Zealot, available here, and the Reader's Guide to Bill O'Reilly's Killing Jesus, available here.

Greek Grammar Beyond the Basics

Author: Daniel B. Wallace
Publisher:
ISBN: 9780310239321
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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Greek Grammar Beyond the Basics integrates the technical requirements for proper Greek interpretation with the actual interests and needs of Bible students. It is the first text to systematically link syntax and exegesis of the New Testament for second-year Greek students. It explores numerous syntactical categories, some of which have only recently been recognized.Greek Grammar Beyond the Basics is the most up-to-date Greek grammar available. It equips intermediate Greek students with the skills they need to do exegesis of biblical texts in a way that is faithful to their intended meaning. You can click on a biblical text that Wallace references and immediately examine the Greek text under discussion.'A first-rate work! Wallace has devoted much time and thought to grammatical analysis of the Greek New Testament. Set forth with clarity, this volume will remain a reference tool that student and scholar alike can consult with profit.'Bruce M. Metzger, Professor of New Testament, Emeritus, Princeton Theological Seminary'Dr. Wallace, an exact scholar with an unrivaled command of the literature in his field, is also a humane teacher, catering to the student's needs by his beautiful clarity and precision, topical illustrations, and witty asides. This book's length and wealth of detail are offset by its simple structure, clear tables, and lucid summaries. It deserves acclaim from the learned as well as the student.'The Reverend Professor C. F. D. Moule, Lady Margaret Professor Emeritus, University if Cambridge, EnglandEasy-to-use Pradis interface is:* Transparent---Footnotes automatically display with the appropriate text.* Powerful---Conduct complex searches quickly---without having to understand computerese.* User-Driven---Write as many personal notes as you need and link them to verses and chapters.* Flexible---Many features are easy to use because they're designed like programs you frequently use. For example, navigate through the text by using a context tree or the 'go to' dialog box. Expand the scope and speed of your Bible studies.Greek Grammar Beyond the Basics is powered by Pradis, the most powerful software available for Bible study. It's fully compatible with any edition of Zondervan's Bible Study Library. Choose the edition that's right for you. Visit www.zondervan.com/BibleStudyLibrary for more information .Pentium 166 MHz or higher processorWindows 98, 2000, ME, XP, NT 4.0 (service pack 6)32 MB RAM52 MB hard disk spaceCD-ROM driveVGA or higher resolution monitor

Sibyls Scriptures and Scrolls John Collins at Seventy

Author: Joel Baden
Publisher: BRILL
ISBN: 9004324747
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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This volume, a tribute to John J. Collins by his friends, colleagues, and students, includes essays on the wide range of interests that have occupied John Collins’s distinguished career.

The Islamic Jesus

Author: Mustafa Akyol
Publisher: St. Martin's Press
ISBN: 1250088704
Format: PDF, ePub
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“A welcome expansion of the fragile territory known as common ground.” —The New York Times When Reza Aslan’s bestseller Zealot came out in 2013, there was criticism that he hadn’t addressed his Muslim faith while writing the origin story of Christianity. In fact, Ross Douthat of The New York Times wrote that “if Aslan had actually written in defense of the Islamic view of Jesus, that would have been something provocative and new.” Mustafa Akyol’s The Islamic Jesus is that book. The Islamic Jesus reveals startling new truths about Islam in the context of the first Muslims and the early origins of Christianity. Muslims and the first Christians—the Jewish followers of Jesus—saw Jesus as not divine but rather as a prophet and human Messiah and that salvation comes from faith and good works, not merely as faith, as Christians would later emphasize. What Akyol seeks to reveal are how these core beliefs of Jewish Christianity, which got lost in history as a heresy, emerged in a new religion born in 7th Arabia: Islam. Akyol exposes this extraordinary historical connection between Judaism, Jewish Christianity and Islam—a major mystery unexplored by academia. From Jesus’ Jewish followers to the Nazarenes and Ebionites to the Qu’ran’s stories of Mary and Jesus, The Islamic Jesus will reveal links between religions that seem so contrary today. It will also call on Muslims to discover their own Jesus, at a time when they are troubled by their own Pharisees and Zealots.

Orthodoxy and Heresy in Early Christian Contexts

Author: Paul A. Hartog
Publisher: Wipf and Stock Publishers
ISBN: 163087955X
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Eighty years ago, Walter Bauer promulgated a bold and provocative thesis about early Christianity. He argued that many forms of Christianity started the race, but one competitor pushed aside the others, until this powerful "orthodox" version won the day. The victors re-wrote history, marginalizing all other perspectives and silencing their voices, even though the alternatives possessed equal right to the title of normative Christianity. Bauer's influence still casts a long shadow on early Christian scholarship. Were heretical movements the original forms of Christianity? Did the heretics outnumber the orthodox? Did orthodox heresiologists accurately portray their opponents? And more fundamentally, how can one make any objective distinction between "heresy" and "orthodoxy"? Is such labeling merely the product of socially situated power? Did numerous, valid forms of Christianity exist without any validating norms of Christianity? This collection of essays, each written by a relevant authority, tackles such questions with scholarly acumen and careful attention to historical, cultural-geographical, and socio-rhetorical detail. Although recognizing the importance of Bauer's critical insights, innovative methodologies, and fruitful suggestions, the contributors expose numerous claims of the Bauer thesis (in both original and recent manifestations) that fall short of the historical evidence.

Prison Shakespeare and the Purpose of Performance Repentance Rituals and the Early Modern

Author: N. Herold
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 1137432675
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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Over the last decade a number of prison theatre programs have developed to rehabilitate inmates by having them perform Shakespearean adaptations. This book focuses on how prison theatre today reveals certain elements of the early modern theatre that were themselves responses to cataclysmic changes in theological doctrine and religious practice.