How Voters Decide

Author: Richard R. Lau
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1139456865
Format: PDF, Mobi
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This book attempts to redirect the field of voting behavior research by proposing a paradigm-shifting framework for studying voter decision making. An innovative experimental methodology is presented for getting 'inside the heads' of citizens as they confront the overwhelming rush of information from modern presidential election campaigns. Four broad theoretically-defined types of decision strategies that voters employ to help decide which candidate to support are described and operationally-defined. Individual and campaign-related factors that lead voters to adopt one or another of these strategies are examined. Most importantly, this research proposes a new normative focus for the scientific study of voting behavior: we should care about not just which candidate received the most votes, but also how many citizens voted correctly - that is, in accordance with their own fully-informed preferences.

The Rationalizing Voter

Author: Milton Lodge
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1107067057
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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Political behavior is the result of innumerable unnoticed forces and conscious deliberation is often a rationalization of automatically triggered feelings and thoughts. Citizens are very sensitive to environmental contextual factors such as the title 'President' preceding 'Obama' in a newspaper headline, upbeat music or patriotic symbols accompanying a campaign ad, or question wording and order in a survey, all of which have their greatest influence when citizens are unaware. This book develops and tests a dual-process theory of political beliefs, attitudes and behavior, claiming that all thinking, feeling, reasoning and doing have an automatic component as well as a conscious deliberative component. The authors are especially interested in the impact of automatic feelings on political judgments and evaluations. This research is based on laboratory experiments, which allow the testing of five basic hypotheses: hot cognition, automaticity, affect transfer, affect contagion and motivated reasoning.

Citizens Politics and Social Communication

Author: R. Robert Huckfeldt
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9780521452984
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Democratic politics is a collective enterprise, not simply because individual votes are counted to determine winners, but more fundamentally because the individual exercise of citizenship is an interdependent undertaking. Citizens argue with one another and they generally arrive at political decisions through processes of social interaction and deliberation. This book is dedicated to investigating the political implications of interdependent citizens within the context of the 1984 presidential campaign as it was experienced in the metropolitan area of South Bend, Indiana. Hence this is a community study in the fullest sense of the term. National politics is experienced locally through a series of filters unique to a particular setting and its consequences for the exercise of democratic citizenship.

New Directions in Public Opinion

Author: Adam J. Berinsky
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317684206
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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The field of public opinion is one of the most diverse in political science. Over the last 60 years, scholars have drawn upon the disciplines of psychology, economics, sociology, and even biology to learn how ordinary people come to understand the complicated business of politics. But much of the path-breaking research in the field of public opinion is published in journals, taking up fairly narrow questions one at a time and often requiring advanced statistical knowledge to understand these findings. As a result, the study of public opinion can seem confusing and incoherent to undergraduates. To engage undergraduate students in this area, a new type of textbook is required. The second edition of New Directions in Public Opinion brings together leading scholars to provide an accessible and coherent overview of the current state of the field of public opinion. Each chapter provides a general overview of topics that are at the cutting edge of study as well as well-established cornerstones of the field. Each contributor has made substantive revisions to their chapters, and three chapters have been added on genetics and biology, immigration, and political extremism and the Tea Party. Suitable for use as a main textbook or in tandem with a lengthier survey, this book comprehensively covers the topics of public opinion research and pushes students further to explore critical topics in contemporary politics.

Affluence and Influence

Author: Martin Gilens
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 1400844827
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Can a country be a democracy if its government only responds to the preferences of the rich? In an ideal democracy, all citizens should have equal influence on government policy--but as this book demonstrates, America's policymakers respond almost exclusively to the preferences of the economically advantaged. Affluence and Influence definitively explores how political inequality in the United States has evolved over the last several decades and how this growing disparity has been shaped by interest groups, parties, and elections. With sharp analysis and an impressive range of data, Martin Gilens looks at thousands of proposed policy changes, and the degree of support for each among poor, middle-class, and affluent Americans. His findings are staggering: when preferences of low- or middle-income Americans diverge from those of the affluent, there is virtually no relationship between policy outcomes and the desires of less advantaged groups. In contrast, affluent Americans' preferences exhibit a substantial relationship with policy outcomes whether their preferences are shared by lower-income groups or not. Gilens shows that representational inequality is spread widely across different policy domains and time periods. Yet Gilens also shows that under specific circumstances the preferences of the middle class and, to a lesser extent, the poor, do seem to matter. In particular, impending elections--especially presidential elections--and an even partisan division in Congress mitigate representational inequality and boost responsiveness to the preferences of the broader public. At a time when economic and political inequality in the United States only continues to rise, Affluence and Influence raises important questions about whether American democracy is truly responding to the needs of all its citizens.

The SAGE Handbook of Electoral Behaviour

Author: Kai Arzheimer
Publisher: SAGE
ISBN: 1473959268
Format: PDF, Kindle
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The Handbook of Electoral Behaviour is an authoritative and wide ranging survey of this dynamic field, drawing together a team of the world's leading scholars to provide a state-of-the-art review that sets the agenda for future study.

Partisan Priorities

Author: Patrick J. Egan
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1107042585
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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Partisan Priorities investigates issue ownership, showing that American political parties deliver neither superior performance nor popular policies on the issues they 'own'.

Gender and Political Psychology

Author: Zoe Oxley
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317335848
Format: PDF
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This book showcases new work done by gender politics scholars and political psychologists, covering a variety of political psychology topics. These include stereotyping and prejudice, intergroup conflict, social identity, attitude formation, group affinity, group decision-making, anxiety, contextual effects on individual behaviour, and the evolutionary roots of political behaviour. Political psychological insights are applied to address topics of longstanding concern within the field of gender and politics. Among the citizenry, gender differences in political ideology, responses to partisan conflict, Hispanic identity formation, and symbolic racism are explored. Other chapters pose the following questions relating to female candidates: What have been the effects of state parties’ gender-inclusive policies? Who is most likely to gender stereotype candidates? Are general attitudes toward women in political office related to vote choice in specific contests? What are the implications of politicized motherhood? Finally, a set of essays engage a variety of themes related to gender, decision-making rules, and authority in small deliberative bodies. This book was originally published as a special issue of Politics, Groups, and Identities.

Concise Encyclopedia of Comparative Sociology

Author:
Publisher: BRILL
ISBN: 9004266178
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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This book is a collection of essays intended to communicate effectively the current state of knowledge in comparative sociology, the major aim of which is to identify similarities and differences between and among societies. Forty significant biographies are included.