Human Factors in Simple and Complex Systems Third Edition

Author: Robert W. Proctor
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1482229595
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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Recently, there have been a number of advances in technology, including in mobile devices, globalization of companies, display technologies and healthcare, all of which require significant input and evaluation from human factors specialists. Accordingly, this textbook has been completely updated, with some chapters folded into other chapters and new chapters added where needed. The text continues to fill the need for a textbook that bridges the gap between the conceptual and empirical foundations of the field.

Investigating Human Error

Author: Barry Strauch
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 131711311X
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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In this book the author applies contemporary error theory to the needs of investigators and of anyone attempting to understand why someone made a critical error, how that error led to an incident or accident, and how to prevent such errors in the future. Students and investigators of human error will gain an appreciation of the literature on error, with numerous references to both scientific research and investigative reports in a wide variety of applications, from airplane accidents, to bus accidents, to bonfire disasters. Based on the author's extensive experience as an accident investigator and instructor of both aircraft accident investigation techniques and human factors psychology, it reviews recent human factors literature, summarizes major transportation accidents, and shows how to investigate the types of errors that typically occur in high risk industries. It presents a model of human error causation influenced largely by James Reason and Neville Moray, and relates it to error investigations with step-by-step guidelines for data collection and analysis that investigators can readily apply as needed. This second edition of Investigating Human Error has been brought up to date throughout, with pertinent recent accidents and safety literature integrated. It features new material on fatigue, distraction (eg mobile phone and texting) and medication use. It also now explores the topics of corporate culture, safety culture and safety management systems. Additionally the second edition considers the effects of the reduction in the number of major accidents on investigation quality, the consequences of social changes on transportation safety (such as drinking and driving, cell phone use, etc), the contemporary role of accident investigation, and the effects of the prosecution of those involved in accidents.

Investigating Human Error Incidents Accidents and Complex Systems

Author: Barry Strauch
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1351926292
Format: PDF, ePub
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In this book the author applies contemporary error theory to the needs of investigators and of anyone attempting to understand why someone made a critical error, how that error led to an incident or accident, and how to prevent such errors in the future. Students and investigators of human error will gain an appreciation of the literature on error, with numerous references to both scientific research and investigative reports in a wide variety of applications, from airplane accidents, to bus accidents, to bonfire disasters. Features include: - an easy to follow step by step approach to conducting error investigations that even those new to the field can readily apply. - summaries of recent transportation accidents and human factors literature and relates them to the cause of human error in accidents. - an approach to investigating human error that will be of interest to both human factors psychology and industrial engineering students and instructors, as well as investigators of accidents in aviation, mass transportation, nuclear power, or any industry that is to the adverse effects of error. Based on the author's over 18 years of experience as an accident investigator and instructor of both aircraft accident investigation techniques and human factors psychology, it reviews recent human factors literature, summarizes major transportation accidents, and shows how to investigate the types of errors that typically occur in high risk industries. It presents a model of human error causation influenced largely by James Reason and Neville Moray, and relates it to error investigations with step by step guidelines for data collection and analysis that investigators can readily apply as needed.

Verification and Validation of Complex Systems Human Factors Issues

Author: John A. Wise
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9783662029343
Format: PDF, Docs
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Despite its increasing importance, the verification and validation of the human-machine interface is perhaps the most overlooked aspect of system development. Although much has been written about the design and developmentprocess, very little organized information is available on how to verifyand validate highly complex and highly coupled dynamic systems. Inability toevaluate such systems adequately may become the limiting factor in our ability to employ systems that our technology and knowledge allow us to design. This volume, based on a NATO Advanced Science Institute held in 1992, is designed to provide guidance for the verification and validation of all highly complex and coupled systems. Air traffic control isused an an example to ensure that the theory is described in terms that will allow its implementation, but the results can be applied to all complex and coupled systems. The volume presents the knowledge and theory ina format that will allow readers from a wide variety of backgrounds to apply it to the systems for which they are responsible. The emphasis is on domains where significant advances have been made in the methods of identifying potential problems and in new testing methods and tools. Also emphasized are techniques to identify the assumptions on which a system is built and to spot their weaknesses.

Drift into Failure

Author: Sidney Dekker
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1351942913
Format: PDF, Mobi
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What does the collapse of sub-prime lending have in common with a broken jackscrew in an airliner’s tailplane? Or the oil spill disaster in the Gulf of Mexico with the burn-up of Space Shuttle Columbia? These were systems that drifted into failure. While pursuing success in a dynamic, complex environment with limited resources and multiple goal conflicts, a succession of small, everyday decisions eventually produced breakdowns on a massive scale. We have trouble grasping the complexity and normality that gives rise to such large events. We hunt for broken parts, fixable properties, people we can hold accountable. Our analyses of complex system breakdowns remain depressingly linear, depressingly componential - imprisoned in the space of ideas once defined by Newton and Descartes. The growth of complexity in society has outpaced our understanding of how complex systems work and fail. Our technologies have gotten ahead of our theories. We are able to build things - deep-sea oil rigs, jackscrews, collateralized debt obligations - whose properties we understand in isolation. But in competitive, regulated societies, their connections proliferate, their interactions and interdependencies multiply, their complexities mushroom. This book explores complexity theory and systems thinking to understand better how complex systems drift into failure. It studies sensitive dependence on initial conditions, unruly technology, tipping points, diversity - and finds that failure emerges opportunistically, non-randomly, from the very webs of relationships that breed success and that are supposed to protect organizations from disaster. It develops a vocabulary that allows us to harness complexity and find new ways of managing drift.

Human Factors Engineering and Ergonomics

Author: Stephen J. Guastello
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 146656010X
Format: PDF, ePub
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Although still true to its original focus on the person–machine interface, the field of human factors psychology (ergonomics) has expanded to include stress research, accident analysis and prevention, and nonlinear dynamical systems theory (how systems change over time), human group dynamics, and environmental psychology. Reflecting new developments in the field, Human Factors Engineering and Ergonomics: A Systems Approach, Second Edition addresses a wide range of human factors and ergonomics principles found in conventional and twenty-first century technologies and environments. Based on the author’s thirty years of experience, the text emphasizes fundamental concepts, systems thinking, the changing nature of the person-machine interface, and the dynamics of systems as they change over time. See What’s New in the Second Edition: Developments in working memory, degrees of freedom in cognitive processes, subjective workload, decision-making, and situation awareness Updated information on cognitive workload and fatigue Additional principles for HFE, networks, multiple person-machine systems, and human-robot swarms Accident analysis and prevention includes resilience, new developments in safety climate, and an update to the inventory of accident prevention techniques and their relative effectiveness Problems in "big data" mining Psychomotor control and its relevance to human-robot systems Navigation in real-world environment Trust in automation and augmented cognition Computer technology permeates every aspect of the human–machine system, and has only become more ubiquitous since the previous edition. The systems are becoming more complex, so it should stand to reason that theories need to evolve to cope with the new sources of complexity. While many books cover traditional topics and theory, they to not focus on the practical problems students will face in the future. With broad coverage that ranges from physical ergonomics to cognitive aspects of human-machine interaction and includes dynamic approaches to system failure, this book increases the number of methods and analytical tools that are available for the human factors researcher.

Safer Complex Industrial Environments

Author: Erik Hollnagel
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9781420092493
Format: PDF, Kindle
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While a quick response can save you in a time of crisis, avoiding a crisis remains the best defense. When dealing with complex industrial systems, it has become increasingly obvious that preparedness requires a sophisticated understanding of human factors as they relate to the functional characteristics of socio-technology systems. Edited by industrial safety expert Erik Hollnagel and featuring commentary from leaders in the field, Safer Complex Industrial Environments: A Human Factors Approach examines the latest research on the contemporary human factors approach and methods currently in practice. Drawing on examples mainly from the nuclear industry, the book presents a contemporary view on human factors in complex industrial systems. The contributors contrast the traditional view of human factors as a liability with the contemporary view that recognizes human factor as also an asset without which the safe and efficient performance of complex industrial systems would be impossible. It describes how this view has developed in parallel to the increasing complexity and intractability of socio-technical systems and partly as a consequence of that. The book also demonstrates how this duality of the human factor can be reconciled by recognizing that the human and organizational functions that can be the cause of adverse events are also the very foundation for safety. Building on this, the book introduces theories and methods that can be used to describe human and collective performance in a complex socio-technical environment. It explores how contemporary human factors can be used to go beyond failure analysis to actively make complex industrial environments safer.

Behind Human Error

Author: David D. Woods
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1317175530
Format: PDF, ePub
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Human error is cited over and over as a cause of incidents and accidents. The result is a widespread perception of a 'human error problem', and solutions are thought to lie in changing the people or their role in the system. For example, we should reduce the human role with more automation, or regiment human behavior by stricter monitoring, rules or procedures. But in practice, things have proved not to be this simple. The label 'human error' is prejudicial and hides much more than it reveals about how a system functions or malfunctions. This book takes you behind the human error label. Divided into five parts, it begins by summarising the most significant research results. Part 2 explores how systems thinking has radically changed our understanding of how accidents occur. Part 3 explains the role of cognitive system factors - bringing knowledge to bear, changing mindset as situations and priorities change, and managing goal conflicts - in operating safely at the sharp end of systems. Part 4 studies how the clumsy use of computer technology can increase the potential for erroneous actions and assessments in many different fields of practice. And Part 5 tells how the hindsight bias always enters into attributions of error, so that what we label human error actually is the result of a social and psychological judgment process by stakeholders in the system in question to focus on only a facet of a set of interacting contributors. If you think you have a human error problem, recognize that the label itself is no explanation and no guide to countermeasures. The potential for constructive change, for progress on safety, lies behind the human error label.

Human Performance on the Flight Deck

Author: Don Harris
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1351929682
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Taking an integrated, systems approach to dealing exclusively with the human performance issues encountered on the flight deck of the modern airliner, this book describes the inter-relationships between the various application areas of human factors, recognising that the human contribution to the operation of an airliner does not fall into neat pigeonholes. The relationship between areas such as pilot selection, training, flight deck design and safety management is continually emphasised within the book. It also affirms the upside of human factors in aviation - the positive contribution that it can make to the industry - and avoids placing undue emphasis on when the human component fails. The book is divided into four main parts. Part one describes the underpinning science base, with chapters on human information processing, workload, situation awareness, decision making, error and individual differences. Part two of the book looks at the human in the system, containing chapters on pilot selection, simulation and training, stress, fatigue and alcohol, and environmental stressors. Part three takes a closer look at the machine (the aircraft), beginning with an examination of flight deck display design, followed by chapters on aircraft control, flight deck automation, and HCI on the flight deck. Part four completes the volume with a consideration of safety management issues, both on the flight deck and across the airline; the final chapter in this section looks at human factors for incident and accident investigation. The book is written for professionals within the aviation industry, both on the flight deck and elsewhere, for post-graduate students and for researchers working in the area.

Ten Questions About Human Error

Author: Sidney Dekker
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1410612066
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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Ten Questions About Human Error asks the type of questions frequently posed in incident and accident investigations, people's own practice, managerial and organizational settings, policymaking, classrooms, Crew Resource Management Training, and error research. It is one installment in a larger transformation that has begun to identify both deep-rooted constraints and new leverage points of views of human factors and system safety. The ten questions about human error are not just questions about human error as a phenomenon, but also about human factors and system safety as disciplines, and where they stand today. In asking these questions and sketching the answers to them, this book attempts to show where current thinking is limited--where vocabulary, models, ideas, and notions are constraining progress. This volume looks critically at the answers human factors would typically provide and compares/contrasts them with current research insights. Each chapter provides directions for new ideas and models that could perhaps better cope with the complexity of the problems facing human error today. As such, this book can be used as a supplement for a variety of human factors courses.