Humanitarian Violence

Author: Neda Atanasoski
Publisher: U of Minnesota Press
ISBN: 145294007X
Format: PDF, Docs
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When is a war not a war? When it is undertaken in the name of democracy, against the forces of racism, sexism, and religious and political persecution? This is the new world of warfare that Neda Atanasoski observes in Humanitarian Violence, different in name from the old imperialism but not so different in kind. In particular, she considers U.S. militarism—humanitarian militarism—during the Vietnam War, the Soviet-Afghan War, and the 1990s wars of secession in the former Yugoslavia. What this book brings to light—through novels, travel narratives, photojournalism, films, news media, and political rhetoric—is in fact a system of postsocialist imperialism based on humanitarian ethics. In the fiction of the United States as a multicultural haven, which morally underwrites the nation’s equally brutal waging of war and making of peace, parts of the world are subject to the violence of U.S. power because they are portrayed to be homogeneous and racially, religiously, and sexually intolerant—and thus permanently in need of reform. The entangled notions of humanity and atrocity that follow from such mediations of war and crisis have refigured conceptions of racial and religious freedom in the post–Cold War era. The resulting cultural narratives, Atanasoski suggests, tend to racialize ideological differences—whereas previous forms of imperialism racialized bodies. In place of the European racial imperialism, U.S. settler colonialism, and pre–civil rights racial constructions that associated racial difference with a devaluing of nonwhite bodies, Humanitarian Violence identifies an emerging discourse of race that focuses on ideological and cultural differences and makes postsocialist and Islamic nations the potential targets of U.S. disciplining violence.

On Video Games

Author: Soraya Murray
Publisher: I.B.Tauris
ISBN: 178672250X
Format: PDF, ePub
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Video games are a defining part of mass visual culture. Today over half of all American households own a dedicated game console and gaming industry profits trump those of the film industry worldwide. In this book, Soraya Murray moves past the technical discussions of games and offers a fresh and incisive look at their cultural dimensions. She critically explores blockbusters likeThe Last of Us, Metal Gear Solid, Spec Ops: The Line, Tomb Raider and Assassin’s Creed to show how they are deeply entangled with American ideological positions and contemporary political, cultural and economic conflicts. As quintessential forms of visual material in the twenty-first century, mainstream games both mirror and spur larger societal fears, hopes and dreams, and even address complex struggles for recognition. This book examines both their elaborately constructed characters and densely layered worlds, whose social and environmental landscapes reflect ideas about gender, race, globalisation and urban life. In this emerging field of study, Murray provides novel theoretical approaches to discussing games and playable media as culture. Demonstrating that games are at the frontline of power relations, she reimagines how we see them – and more importantly how we understand them.

Panic Transnational Cultural Studies and the Affective Contours of Power

Author: Micol Seigel
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
ISBN: 1351054724
Format: PDF, Docs
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This volume explores the panic that is a central affective register of our current international order. Fears of Somali pirates, "Gypsy" kidnappers, African warlords, Ebola, "Mexican meth," pimps, coyotes, gangs, climate refugees and more, structure the dark side of a metropolitan unconscious. These are terrors over things that (might) cross borders, threatening the sanctity of territoriality and capital. Inspired by scholarship challenging panics around human and sex trafficking, the contributors to this volume develop the umbrella category of the global moral panic. Embracing the challenge of grasping a phenomenon not previously regarded as cohering, they consider panics provoked by travel, passage, transgression; panics over bodies that move. Like panics over trafficking, the episodes narrated here ride and feed a field of common sense regarding crime, rights, and state power. Their logics of victims and villains nourish notions of the centrality of punishment, drawing from and feeding taxonomies of gender, race, and nation, solidifying the order craved by capital. They spotlight the coloniality of power, the ongoing salience of empire, the savior logics of rescue, and the profound sexism organizing hierarchies of bodies and places. Panic, this volume diagnoses, is a crucial, undertheorized facet of contemporary local-global relations.

Gewalt

Author: Steven Pinker
Publisher: S. Fischer Verlag
ISBN: 310401616X
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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Die Geschichte der Menschheit – eine ewige Abfolge von Krieg, Genozid, Mord, Folter und Vergewaltigung. Und es wird immer schlimmer. Aber ist das richtig? In einem wahren Opus Magnum, einer groß angelegten Gesamtgeschichte unserer Zivilisation, untersucht der weltbekannte Evolutionspsychologe Steven Pinker die Entwicklung der Gewalt von der Urzeit bis heute und in allen ihren individuellen und kollektiven Formen, vom Verprügeln der Ehefrau bis zum geplanten Völkermord. Unter Rückgriff auf eine Fülle von wissenschaftlichen Belegen aus den unterschiedlichsten Disziplinen beweist er zunächst, dass die Gewalt im Laufe der Geschichte stetig abgenommen hat und wir heute in der friedlichsten Epoche der Menschheit leben. Diese verblüffende Tatsache verlangt nach einer Erklärung: Pinker schält in seiner Analyse sechs Entwicklungen heraus, die diesen Trend begünstigt haben, untersucht die Psychologie der Gewalt auf fünf innere Dämonen, die Gewaltausübung begünstigen, benennt vier Eigenschaften des Menschen, die den inneren Dämonen entgegenarbeiten und isoliert schließlich fünf historische Kräfte, die uns heute in der friedlichsten Zeit seit jeher leben lassen. Pinkers Darstellung revolutioniert den Blick auf die Welt und uns Menschen. Und sie macht Hoffnung und Mut. »Pinkers Studie ist eine leidenschaftliche Antithese zum verbreiteten Kulturpessimismus und dem Gefühl des moralischen Untergangs der Moderne.« Der Spiegel »Steven Pinker ist ein Top-Autor und verdient all die Superlative, mit denen man ihn überhäuft« New York Times» Die Argumente von Steven Pinker haben Gewicht [...]. Die Chance, heute Opfer von Gewalt zu werden, ist viel geringer als zu jeder anderen Zeit. Das ist eine spannende Nachricht, die konträr zur öffentlichen Wahrnehmung ist." Deutschlandfunk »Steven Pinker ist ein intellektueller Rockstar« The Guardian »Der Evolutionspsychologe Steven Pinker gilt als wichtigster Intellektueller« Süddeutsche Zeitung »Verflucht überzeugend« Hamburger Abendblatt

American Negotiating Behavior

Author: Richard H. Solomon
Publisher: US Institute of Peace Press
ISBN: 160127047X
Format: PDF, ePub
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Informed by discussions and interviews with more than fifty seasoned foreign and American negotiators, this landmark study offers a rich and detailed portrait of the negotiating practices of American officials. Including contributions by eleven international experts, i assesses the multiple influences--cultural, institutional, historical, and political--that shape how American policymakers and diplomats approach negotiations with foreign counterparts and highlights behavioral patterns that transcend the actions of individual negotiators and administrations.

International Criminal Law and Sexual Violence against Women

Author: Daniela Nadj
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317228189
Format: PDF
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This book explores the prosecution of wartime sexual violence in international criminal law and asks what the juridicalisation of gender-based violence signifies for women. The book explores the portrayal of the various gendered identities that surface in armed conflict and it asks whether the law is capable of reflecting these in subsequent judgements. Focusing on the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia and the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda as well as subsequent developments in the International Criminal Court, the book shows how the tribunals have delivered landmark jurisprudence in the area of sexual violence against women and provided a legacy for how gender justice is incorporated into international law. However, Daniela Nadj argues that in the relevant cases there is a tendency to depict women in monolithic fashion with little agency or sense of identity beyond their ethnicity. By bringing to the surface the complexity and multi-faceted gendered identities in wartime, the book calls for a reconceptualisation of notions of femininity in armed conflict.

Das Recht der V lker

Author: John Rawls
Publisher: Walter de Gruyter
ISBN: 3110898535
Format: PDF
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Welche Bedingungen lassen Völker gerecht und friedlich zusammenleben? Unter welchen Umständen sind Kriege gerechtfertigt? Welche Leitlinien müssen gegeben sein für Organisationen, die eine gerechte Gesellschaft von Völkern mit gleichen Rechten herzustellen vermögen? In acht Grundsätzen für eine gerechte internationale Ordnung entwickelt der amerikanische Philosoph John Rawls einen hypothetischen "Vertrag der Gesellschaft der Völker". Das jüngste Buch von John Rawls ist nach A Theory of Justice 1971, dt. 1975) und Political Liberalism (1993, dt. 1998) ein weiteres wichtiges Werk des bedeutenden amerikanischen Philosophen. Die Originalausgabe (The Law of Peoples, 1999) hat zu heftigen Kontroversen geführt.