Humanity s Children

Author: Sonja C. Grover
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3642325017
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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This book addresses the phenomenon of children as the particular targets of extreme cruelty and genocide during armed conflict. Selected International Criminal Court cases are analyzed to illustrate the ICC‘s failure to address the genocidal forcible transfer of children to armed State and/or non-State groups or forces perpetrating mass atrocities and/or genocide. An original legal interpretation of children as a protected group in the context of the genocide provision of the Rome Statute is provided. The work also examines certain examples of the various modes in which armed State and/or non-State groups or forces perpetrating mass atrocities and/or genocide appropriate children and accomplish the genocidal forcible transfer of children to the perpetrator group. It is argued that the failure to prosecute the genocidal forcible transfer of children through the ICC mechanisms (where the Court has jurisdiction and the State has failed to meet its obligations in this regard) undermines the perceived gravity of this heinous international crime within the international community. Furthermore, this ICC failure to prosecute conflicts with the interests of justice and ultimately results in an erosion of the respect for the personhood and human dignity of children.

The Torture of Children During Armed Conflicts

Author: Sonja C. Grover
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3642406890
Format: PDF, Docs
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This book examines selected legal complexities of the notion of torture and the issue of the proper foundation for legally characterizing certain acts as torture, especially when children are the targeted victims of torture. ICC case law is used to highlight the International Criminal Court’s reluctance in practice to prosecute as a separable offence the crime of torture as set out in one or more of the relevant provisions of the Rome Statute where children are the particularized targets as part of a common plan during armed conflict. Also addressed is the failure of the ICC to consider that the young age of the victims of torture (i.e. children) should be an aggravating factor taken into account in determining the ICC sentence for those convicted of the torture of civilians, including children, in the context of armed conflict as part of a common plan. The six UN-designated grave crimes against children (including child soldiering for State or non-State forces perpetrating mass atrocities, and sexual violence perpetrated on a systematic and widespread basis against children including child soldiers), it is argued, are also instances of the torture of children as part of a common plan such that separate charges of torture are legally supportable (along with the other charges relating to additional Rome Statute offences involved in such circumstances). Useful legal perspectives on the issue of the torture of children in its various manifestations gleaned from the case law of other international judicial forums such as the Inter-American Court of Human Rights and the ICTY are also examined.

Fair Labelling and the Dilemma of Prosecuting Gender Based Crimes at the International Criminal Tribunals

Author: Hilmi M. Zawati
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199357110
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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This scholarly legal work focuses on the dilemma of prosecuting gender-based crimes under the statutes of the international criminal tribunals with reference to the principle of fair labelling. In this book Hilmi M. Zawati explains how the abstractness and lack of accurate description of gender-based crimes in the statutory laws of the international criminal tribunals and courts infringe the principle of fair labelling, lead to inconsistent verdicts and punishments, and cause inadequate prosecution of these crimes. This inquiry deals with gender-based crimes as a case study, and with fair labelling as a legal principle and a theoretical framework. Critical and timely, this study contributes to existing scholarship in many different ways. It is the first legal analysis to focus on the dilemma of prosecuting and punishing wartime gender-based crimes in the statutory laws of the international criminal tribunals and the ICC in the context of fair labelling. Moreover, it emphasizes that applying fair labelling to wartime gender-based crimes would enable the tribunals and the ICC to deliver fair judgments, eliminate inconsistent prosecution, overcome shortcomings in addressing gender-based crimes within their jurisprudence, while breaking the cycle of impunity for these crimes. Consisting of two parts, this work begins by outlining the central focus and theoretical legal framework of the study. It concentrates on fair labelling as an imperative legal principle and a legal framework, examines its intellectual development, scope and justification, and illustrates its applicability to gender-based crimes. The second part addresses the dilemma of prosecuting gender-based crimes in the international criminal tribunals.

Elements of Genocide

Author: Paul Behrens
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1136168567
Format: PDF, ePub
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Elements of Genocide provides an authoritative evaluation of the current perception of the crime, as it appears in the decisions of judicial authorities, the writings of the foremost academic experts in the field, and in the texts of Commission Reports. Genocide constitutes one of the most significant problems in contemporary international law. Within the last fifteen years, the world has witnessed genocidal conduct in Rwanda and Bosnia and Herzegovina, while the debate on the commission of genocide in Darfur and the DR Congo is ongoing. Within the same period, the prosecution of suspected génocidaires has taken place in international tribunals, internationalised tribunals and domestic courts; and the names of Slobodan Milosevic, Radovan Karadzic and Saddam Hussein feature among those against whom charges of genocide were brought. Pursuing an interdisciplinary examination of the existing case law on genocide in international and domestic courts, Elements of Genocide comprehensive and accessible reflection on the crime of genocide, and its inherent complexities.

The Fundamental Concept of Crime in International Criminal Law

Author: Iryna Marchuk
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3642282466
Format: PDF, Docs
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This book examines the rapid development of the fundamental concept of a crime in international criminal law from a comparative law perspective. In this context, particular thought has been given to the catalyzing impact of the criminal law theory that has developed in major world legal systems upon the crystallization of the substantive part of international criminal law. This study offers a critical overview of international and domestic jurisprudence with regard to the construal of the concept of a crime (actus reus, mens rea, defences, modes of liability) and exposes roots of confusion in international criminal law through a comprehensive comparative analysis of substantive criminal laws in selected legal jurisdictions.

Trade Marks and Free Trade

Author: Lazaros Grigoriadis
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319047957
Format: PDF, Kindle
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This book is the first study to examine the issue of the legality of parallel imports of trademarked goods under the most important legal systems on an international level, namely under GATT/WTO law, EU law and the laws of the ten major trading partners of the European Union. Part I consists of a general approach to the phenomenon of parallel importation and of a presentation of the theories that have been suggested to resolve the above-mentioned issue. The rule of exhaustion of rights, of which there are three types (rule of national, regional and international exhaustion of rights), is proposed as the most effective instrument to deal with the issue in question. Part II examines the question of exhaustion of trademark rights in light of the provisions of GATT/WTO Law. Part III analyzes the elements of the EU provisions on exhaustion of trademark rights (Articles 7 of Directive 2008/95/EC and 13 of Regulation (EC) 207/2009) and some specific issues relating to the application of these provisions. Part IV presents the regimes of exhaustion of trademark rights recognized in the European Union’s current ten most significant trading partners. The book is the first legal study to welcome, in light of economic analysis, the approach adopted by GATT/WTO law and EU law to the question of the geographical scope of the exhaustion of the trademark rights rule. It includes all the case law developed on an international level on the issue of the legality of parallel imports of trademarked goods and a comprehensive overview of the scientific literature concerning the phenomenon of parallel imports in general and the legality of parallel imports of trademarked goods. All the views expressed in the book are based on the European Court of Justice’s most recent case law and that of the courts of the most important trading partners of the European Union.

Handbook of Employment Discrimination Research

Author: Laura Beth Nielsen
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1402034555
Format: PDF
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There is much to understand about employment discrimination law as a social system. What drives the growing trend toward litigation? To what extent does discrimination persist and why does it vary by organizational and market context? How do different groups perceive discrimination and what, if anything, do they do about it? How do employers respond to discrimination law? What is the effect of broader political and legal currents? What is the relationship between anti-discrimination law and social inequality? This book presents answers, from a distinguished group of scholars, and social scientists, offering a broad reconsideration of employment discrimination and its treatment in law.

Child Soldier Victims of Genocidal Forcible Transfer

Author: Sonja C. Grover
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3642236146
Format: PDF, ePub
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This book provides an original legal analysis of child soldiers recruited into armed groups or forces committing mass atrocities and/or genocide as the victims of the genocidal forcible transfer of children. Legal argument is made regarding the lack of criminal culpability of such child soldier 'recruits' for conflict-related international crimes and the inapplicability of currently recommended judicial and non-judicial accountability mechanisms in such cases. The book challenges various anthropological accounts of child soldiers' alleged 'tactical agency' to resist committing atrocity as members of armed groups or forces committing mass atrocity and/or genocide. Also provided are original interpretations of relevant international law including an interpretation of the Rome Statute age-based exclusion from prosecution of persons who were under 18 at the time of perpetrating the crime as substantive law setting an international standard for the humane treatment of child soldiers.

Commentary on the Law of the International Criminal Court

Author: Mark Klamberg
Publisher: Torkel Opsahl Academic Epublisher
ISBN: 9788283481006
Format: PDF, ePub
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This book provides legal commentary on every article of the Statute of the International Criminal Court. The text is written by 45 experts from 18 countries. Case law and other sources relevant to the interpretation of the Statute are discussed and referenced.

Child Refugee Asylum as a Basic Human Right

Author: Sonja C. Grover
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319780131
Format: PDF, Kindle
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This book addresses the intersection of various domains of international law (refugee law, human rights law including child rights international law and humanitarian law) in terms of the implications for State obligations to child refugee asylum seekers in particular; both as collectives and as individual persons. How these State obligations have been interpreted and translated into practice in different jurisdictions is explored through selected problematic significant cases. Further, various threats to refugee children realizing their asylum rights, including refoulement of these children through State extraterritorial and pushback migration control strategies, are highlighted through selected case law. The argument is made that child refugee asylum seekers must not be considered, in theory or in practice, beyond the protection of the law if the international rule of law grounded on respect for human dignity and human rights is in fact to prevail.