Identifying the Enemy

Author: Emily Crawford
Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA
ISBN: 0199678499
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Over the past twenty-five years, significant changes in the conduct of wars have increasingly placed civilians in traditional military roles - employing civilians to execute drone strikes, the 'targeted killing' of suspected terrorists, the use of private security contractors in combat zones, and the spread of cyber attacks. Under the laws of armed conflict, civilians cannot be targeted unless they take direct part in hostilities. Once civilians take action, they become targets. This book analyses the complex question of how to identify just who those civilians are. Identifying the Enemy examines the history of civilian participation in armed conflict and how the law has responded to such action. It asks the crucial question: what is 'direct participation in hostilities'? The book slices through the attempts to untie this Gordian knot, and shows that the changing nature of warfare has called into question the very foundation of the civilian/military dichotomy that is at the heart of the law of armed conflict.

The Treatment of Combatants and Insurgents Under the Law of Armed Conflict

Author: Emily Crawford
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199578966
Format: PDF, Mobi
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On the recent US treatment of detainees in Guantanamo Bay in the "War on Terror", this book draws on considerable legal precedent, legal theory, and policy arguments to make the case that it is time for the law relating to the regulation of armed conflicts to be more uniformly applied. Readership: Scholars of international humanitarian law, international human rights law, and international criminal law; post-graduate students; practitioners in these areas.

Internationalized Armed Conflicts in International Law

Author: Kubo Macak
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0192551787
Format: PDF, Mobi
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This book provides the first comprehensive analysis of factors that transform a prima facie non-international armed conflict (NIAC) into an international armed conflict (IAC) and the consequences that follow from this process of internationalization. It examines in detail the historical development as well as the current state of the relevant rules of international humanitarian law. The discussion is grounded in general international law, complemented with abundant references to case law, and illustrated by examples from twentieth and twenty-first century armed conflicts. In Part I, the book puts forward a thorough catalogue of modalities of conflict internationalization that includes outside intervention, State dissolution, and recognition of belligerency. It then specifically considers the legal qualification of complex situations that feature more than two conflict parties and contrasts the mechanism of internationalization of armed conflicts with the reverse process of de-internationalization. Part II of the book challenges the conventional wisdom that members of non-State armed groups do not normally benefit from combatant status. It argues that the majority of fighters belonging to non-State armed groups in most types of internationalized armed conflicts are in fact eligible for combatant status. Finally, Part III turns to belligerent occupation, traditionally understood as a leading example of a notion that cannot be transposed to armed conflicts occurring in the territory of a single State. By contrast, the book argues in favour of the applicability of the law of belligerent occupation to internationalized armed conflicts.

International Law and Armed Conflict

Author: Laurie R. Blank
Publisher: Aspen Publishers
ISBN: 1454881356
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Experienced authors with over 45 years combined teaching and working in the field use fundamental principles and sources to instruct and guide discussion about the application of the law of armed conflict to contemporary and future questions. Students can gain a solid foundation in the law and develop the tools they need to analyze complex legal problems. International Law and Armed Conflict shows how the law informs operational and policy decision-making. Placing the law of armed conflict in context with related fields, such as human rights law and national security law, the text provides a complete framework for understanding legal paradigms during and after conflict. Innovative materials allow flexibility across a range of class scenarios, from a stand-alone course to part of a broader survey class. New to the Second Edition: New technologies and the law of armed conflict, including cyber, unmanned aerial vehicles and autonomous weapons systems The conflict in Syria, including ISIS, genocide and chemical weapons attacks Humanitarian assistance and the challenges of protecting the civilian population in urban conflicts Contemporary debates regarding detention in non-international armed conflict, human rights law, and targeted killing Professors and students will benefit from: Experienced authors with over 45 years combined teaching and working in the law of armed conflict field in the military, at think tanks, and in academia Use of the fundamental principles and sources of the law to inform discussions and questions about contemporary and future questions An approach that gives students a solid foundation in the law and the analytical tools they need to analyze complex legal situations and problems and to understand how the law informs and impacts operational and policy decision-making Context that ties together the law of armed conflict with other related fields, such as human rights law and national security law, to provide a complete framework for understanding the legal paradigm applicable during and after conflict Teaching materials include: Substantive and innovative tools and materials to teach this topic as a stand-alone class or as part of a broader class on a range of related topics A Teacher’s manual with additional sources, discussion points, and key background information, all designed for maximum use and flexibility in a range of class scenarios

What Every Person Should Know About War

Author: Chris Hedges
Publisher: Simon and Schuster
ISBN: 9781416583141
Format: PDF
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Acclaimed New York Times journalist and author Chris Hedges offers a critical -- and fascinating -- lesson in the dangerous realities of our age: a stark look at the effects of war on combatants. Utterly lacking in rhetoric or dogma, this manual relies instead on bare fact, frank description, and a spare question-and-answer format. Hedges allows U.S. military documentation of the brutalizing physical and psychological consequences of combat to speak for itself. Hedges poses dozens of questions that young soldiers might ask about combat, and then answers them by quoting from medical and psychological studies. • What are my chances of being wounded or killed if we go to war? • What does it feel like to get shot? • What do artillery shells do to you? • What is the most painful way to get wounded? • Will I be afraid? • What could happen to me in a nuclear attack? • What does it feel like to kill someone? • Can I withstand torture? • What are the long-term consequences of combat stress? • What will happen to my body after I die? This profound and devastating portrayal of the horrors to which we subject our armed forces stands as a ringing indictment of the glorification of war and the concealment of its barbarity.

The 33 Strategies Of War

Author: Robert Greene
Publisher: Profile Books
ISBN: 1847651429
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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The third in Robert Greene's bestselling series is now available in a pocket sized concise edition. Following 48 Laws of Power and The Art of Seduction, here is a brilliant distillation of the strategies of war to help you wage triumphant battles everyday. Spanning world civilisations, and synthesising dozens of political, philosophical, and religious texts, The Concise 33 Strategies of War is a guide to the subtle social game of everyday life. Based on profound and timeless lessons, it is abundantly illustrated with examples of the genius and folly of everyone from Napoleon to Margaret Thatcher and Hannibal to Ulysses S. Grant, as well as diplomats, captains of industry and Samurai swordsmen.

Killing Civilians

Author: Hugo Slim
Publisher: Columbia University Press
ISBN: 0231700377
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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When civilians suffer in war, it is often a deliberate act. Massacres, rape, displacement, famine, and disease are the strategic decisions of political and military leaders who make civilians their targets in order to gain the upper hand in battle. Yet there still exists the precious and fragile belief-ingrained in modern international law-that unarmed and innocent people should be protected in war, even if, in practice, the principle of civil immunity is often ignored or rejected. Hoping to rectify this injustice, Hugo Slim uses detailed historical and contemporary examples to reveal the many ways civilians suffer in war. A leading commentator on international humanitarian action and the protection of civilians in war, Slim analyzes the anti-civilian ideologies that encourage and perpetuate suffering and exposes the exploitation of moral ambiguity that is used to sanction extreme hostility. At what point does killing civilians become part of winning a war? Why are some methods of killing used while others are avoided? Bolstering his claims with hard fact, Slim argues that civilian casualties are not only morally reprehensible but also bad military science. His book is a clarion call for action and a passionate defense of civil immunity, a concept that is more urgent and necessary today than ever before.

Essays on Law and War at the Fault Lines

Author: Michael N. Schmitt
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9789067047401
Format: PDF, Mobi
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This collection of essays by Professor Michael N. Schmitt of Durham University draws together those of his articles published over the past two decades that have explored particular fault lines in the law of armed conflict. As such, they examine the complex interplay between warfare and law, seeking to identify where the law and warfare appear to diverge, and where such apparent divergence can be accommodated through contextual interpretation of the law. Each essay examines a particular issue in either the jus ad bellum (the law governing resort to force) or jus in bello (international humanitarian law) that has proven contentious in terms of applying extant norms to the evolving face of armed conflict. Among the topics addressed are counter-terrorism, cyber operations, asymmetrical warfare, assassination, environmental warfare and the participation of civilians in hostilities.

Gender Conflict and Development

Author: Tsjeard Bouta
Publisher: World Bank Publications
ISBN: 9780821359686
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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This publication focuses on the gender dimensions of intrastate conflicts (civil wars), organised around eight key themes of gender and warfare, sexual violence, formal and informal peace processes, post-conflict legal frameworks, work issues, rehabilitation of social services and community-driven development. For each theme, the authors examine the impact on gender roles of conflict situations, the development challenges involved, and the policy options available to help build more inclusive and gender balanced post-conflict societies.