Illicit Drugs in the Environment

Author: Sara Castiglioni
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 9781118008997
Format: PDF, ePub
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Illicit drugs are an emerging class of environmental contaminants and mass spectrometry is the technique of choice for their analysis. This landmark reference discusses the analytical techniques used to detect illicit drugs in wastewater and surface water, details how to estimate the levels of contaminants in the environment, and explores the behavior, fate, and toxic effects of this new class of contaminants, now a ubiquitous presence in wastewater and surface water. The book details how an estimate of illicit drug consumption in a given population can be developed from an analysis of the residues of illicit drugs in wastewater. An important resource for analytical chemists, environmental researchers, forensic scientists, biologists, and toxicologists.

Illicit Drugs in the Environment

Author: Sara Castiglioni
Publisher: Wiley
ISBN: 9780470529546
Format: PDF, ePub
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Illicit drugs are an emerging class of environmental contaminants and mass spectrometry is the technique of choice for their analysis. This landmark reference discusses the analytical techniques used to detect illicit drugs in wastewater and surface water, details how to estimate the levels of contaminants in the environment, and explores the behavior, fate, and toxic effects of this new class of contaminants, now a ubiquitous presence in wastewater and surface water. The book details how an estimate of illicit drug consumption in a given population can be developed from an analysis of the residues of illicit drugs in wastewater. An important resource for analytical chemists, environmental researchers, forensic scientists, biologists, and toxicologists.

Mass Spectrometry for the Novice

Author: John Greaves
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1420094203
Format: PDF, ePub
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With usage of mass spectrometry continually expanding, an increasing number of scientists, technicians, students, and physicians are coming into contact with this valuable technique. Mass spectrometry has many uses, both qualitative and quantitative, from analyzing simple gases to environmental contaminants, pharmaceuticals, and complex biopolymers. The extraordinary versatility can make mass spectrometers daunting to novices. Consequently, new users would benefit greatly from an understanding of the basic concepts as well as the processes that occur in these instruments. Mass Spectrometry for the Novice provides exactly that, with detailed, straightforward descriptions and clear illustrations of principles of operations and techniques. The book begins with an overview that includes essential definitions and then provides information on the components of and the strategies used in the most common instruments. The authors discuss the methodologies available, classes of compounds analyzed, and the types of data that can be generated. A group of representative applications from published articles is summarized, demonstrating the diversity of mass spectrometry. The authors also condense the essentials of the topic into one invaluable chapter that provides a set of concise take-home messages on all aspects of mass spectrometry. The final section provides a collection of resources including books, reviews, and useful websites. Using simple language, new color figures, clever cartoons, and assuming no prior knowledge, this book provides a readily understandable entrée to mass spectrometry. A CD-ROM with selected figures and cartoons is included.

Interpretation of MS MS Mass Spectra of Drugs and Pesticides

Author: Wilfried M. A. Niessen
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 111929424X
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Provides comprehensive coverage of the interpretation of LC–MS–MS mass spectra of 1300 drugs and pesticides Provides a general discussion on the fragmentation of even-electron ions (protonated and deprotonated molecules) in both positive-ion and negative-ion modes This is the reference book for the interpretation of MS–MS mass spectra of small organic molecules Covers related therapeutic classes of compounds such as drugs for cardiovascular diseases, psychotropic compounds, drugs of abuse and designer drugs, antimicrobials, among many others Covers general fragmentation rule as well as specific fragmentation pathways for many chemical functional groups Gives an introduction to MS technology, mass spectral terminology, information contained in mass spectra, and to the identification strategies used for different types of unknowns

Integration of Omics Approaches and Systems Biology for Clinical Applications

Author: Antonia Vlahou
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1119183979
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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Introduces readers to the state of the art of omics platforms and all aspects of omics approaches for clinical applications This book presents different high throughput omics platforms used to analyze tissue, plasma, and urine. The reader is introduced to state of the art analytical approaches (sample preparation and instrumentation) related to proteomics, peptidomics, transcriptomics, and metabolomics. In addition, the book highlights innovative approaches using bioinformatics, urine miRNAs, and MALDI tissue imaging in the context of clinical applications. Particular emphasis is put on integration of data generated from these different platforms in order to uncover the molecular landscape of diseases. The relevance of each approach to the clinical setting is explained and future applications for patient monitoring or treatment are discussed. Integration of omics Approaches and Systems Biology for Clinical Applications presents an overview of state of the art omics techniques. These methods are employed in order to obtain the comprehensive molecular profile of biological specimens. In addition, computational tools are used for organizing and integrating these multi-source data towards developing molecular models that reflect the pathophysiology of diseases. Investigation of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and bladder cancer are used as test cases. These represent multi-factorial, highly heterogeneous diseases, and are among the most significant health issues in developed countries with a rapidly aging population. The book presents novel insights on CKD and bladder cancer obtained by omics data integration as an example of the application of systems biology in the clinical setting. Describes a range of state of the art omics analytical platforms Covers all aspects of the systems biology approach—from sample preparation to data integration and bioinformatics analysis Contains specific examples of omics methods applied in the investigation of human diseases (Chronic Kidney Disease, Bladder Cancer) Integration of omics Approaches and Systems Biology for Clinical Applications will appeal to a wide spectrum of scientists including biologists, biotechnologists, biochemists, biophysicists, and bioinformaticians working on the different molecular platforms. It is also an excellent text for students interested in these fields.

Transformation Products of Emerging Contaminants in the Environment

Author: Dimitra A. Lambropoulou
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1118339576
Format: PDF
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Over the last 15 years, the focus of chemical pollution has shifted from conventional pollutants to so-called “emerging” or “new” unregulated contaminants. These include pharmaceuticals and personal care products, hormones, UV filters, perfluorinated compounds, poylybrominated flame retardants (BFRs), pesticides, plasticizers, artificial sweeteners, illicit drugs, and endocrine disruptor compounds (EDCs). Despite the increasing number of published studies covering emerging contaminants, we know almost nothing about the effects of their transformation products and/or metabolites. This two-volume set provides a unique collection of research on transformation products, their occurrence, fate and risks in the environment. It contains 32 chapters, organised into 7 parts, each with a distinct focus: • General Considerations • Transformation Processes and Treatment Strategies • Analytical Strategies • Occurrence, Fate and Effects in the Environment • Global Speciality and Environmental Status • Risk Assessment, Management and Regulatory Framework • Outlook Transformation Products of Emerging Contaminants in the Environment is a valuable resource for researchers and industry professionals in environmental chemistry, analytical chemistry, ecotoxicology, environmental sciences, and hydrology, as well as environmental consultants and regulatory bodies.

Bioanalysis of Pharmaceuticals

Author: Steen Honor? Hansen
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1118716868
Format: PDF, Docs
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Bioanalysis of Pharmaceuticals: Sample Preparation, Separation Techniques and Mass Spectrometry is the first student textbook on the separation science and mass spectrometry of pharmaceuticals present in biological fluids with an educational presentation of the principles, concepts and applications. It discusses the chemical structures and properties of low- and high-molecular drug substances; the different types of biological samples and fluids that are used; how to prepare the samples by extraction, and how to perform the appropriate analytical measurements by chromatographic and mass spectrometric methods. Bioanalysis of Pharmaceuticals: Sample Preparation, Separation Techniques and Mass Spectrometry: Is an introductory student textbook discussing the different principles and concepts clearly and comprehensively, with many relevant and educational examples Focuses on substances that are administered as human drugs, including low-molecular drug substances, peptides, and proteins Presents both the basic principles that are regularly taught in universities, along with the practical use of bioanalysis as carried out by researchers in the pharmaceutical industry and in hospital laboratories Is aimed at undergraduate students, scientists, technicians and researchers in industry working in the areas of pharmaceutical analyses, biopharmaceutical analyses, biological and life sciences The book includes multiple examples to illustrate the theory and application, with many practical aspects including calculations, thus helping the student to learn how to convert the data recorded by instruments into the real concentration of the drug substances within the biological sample.

Pharma Ecology

Author: Patrick K. Jjemba
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 0470370246
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Pharmaceuticals and personal care products—we can't live without them. Can the environment survive with them? Pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) are increasingly being recognized as micropollutants. In this context, pharmaceutical products encompass a diverse range of drugs used to treat various illnesses, and personal care products include everyday items such as soaps, fragrances, cleaning agents, disinfectants, and similar products. Written for professionals from different backgrounds, Pharma-Ecology bridges the knowledge and language gap and critically examines the issue of PPCP micropollutants and how to best minimize their impact on the environment. Organized systematically, it: Presents a range of pharmaceutical compounds categorized by mode of action and common usage, displaying the volumes (or number of prescriptions) that are dispersed Discusses the detection of PPCPs in the environment using instrumentation and bioassay techniques, including microarrays Covers the occurrences of PPCPs in aquatic systems, sediments, soil, and aerial environments Considers the persistence and degradation of PPCPs in the environment, and links pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics with the kinetics of PPCPs in the environment Explores engineering and treatment techniques that could minimize the impact of PPCPs in the environment Includes numerous tables and figures that illustrate information This is an enlightening reference for engineers, toxicologists, ecologists, micro-biologists, and chemists involved in pollution and environmental analysis; policy-makers; professionals in federal and state regulatory agencies; and pharmaceutical professionals. It is also an excellent text for undergraduate and graduate students in related fields.

Metabolite Safety in Drug Development

Author: Suzanne L. Iverson
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 111894965X
Format: PDF, Docs
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A reference on drug metabolism and metabolite safety in the development phase, this book reviews the analytical techniques and experimental designs critical for metabolite studies. It features case studies of lessons learned and real world examples, along with regulatory perspectives from the US FDA and EMA. • Reviews the analytical techniques and experimental designs critical for metabolite studies • Covers methods including chirality, species differences, mass spectrometry, radiolabels, and in vitro / in vivo correlation • Discusses target pharmacology, in vitro systems aligned to toxicity tests, and drug-drug interactions • Includes perspectives from authors with firsthand involvement in industry and the study of drug metabolites, including viewpoints that have influenced regulatory guidelines

Wastewater Reuse and Current Challenges

Author: Despo Fatta-Kassinos
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319238922
Format: PDF, Mobi
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This volume discusses the current challenges related to the reuse of wastewater. It reviews the analytical methodologies for evaluating emerging contaminants and their transformation products, the sensitivity of various bioassays for assessing the biological effects of treated wastewater, and the bioavailability and uptake of organic contaminants during crop irrigation. It describes in detail the physicochemical and microbiological alterations in soil resulting from irrigation with treated urban wastewater, and discusses our current understanding of antibiotic resistance in wastewater treatment plants and in downstream environments. The book also includes an analysis of the effect of wastewater entering drinking water sources and production, and provides updated information on wastewater reuse for irrigation in North Africa. It presents an important integration tool for water recovery, known as water pinch analysis, and finally showcases two other examples of reuse – one in the paper industry and one in landfill management. It is of interest to experts from various fields of research, including analytical and environmental chemistry, toxicology and environmental and sanitary engineering.