Implications of Pyrite Oxidation for Engineering Works

Author: A. Brian Hawkins
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 331900221X
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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The book highlights and analyses the distress to buildings caused by sulphate-induced heave, with particular reference to the recent problems in the Dublin area of Ireland. It describes the formation of pyrite, the processes involved in its oxidation and the various ways in which consequential expansion takes place. For the first time in the literature it discusses the way that buildings can be raised above their supporting foundation walls by the expansion of pyritiferous fill which has been used beneath ground-bearing floor slabs in Ireland. The significance of fractures through the iron sulphide microcrystals for the rate and extent of oxidation is discussed. Photographs and profiles of sulphate ingress into concrete/concrete blocks are presented. Case histories from the UK, North America and Ireland are discussed.

Ground Chemistry Implications for Construction

Author: A.B. Hawkins
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9789054108665
Format: PDF, ePub
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Since the 1970s and 1980s, there has been an increasing awareness of the importance of ground chemistry in construction. Bringing together representatives of the various disciplines involved in ground chemistry, the proceedings of this conference present case histories and research topics.

Hydrometallurgy 2008

Author: Courtney A. Young
Publisher: SME
ISBN: 0873352661
Format: PDF, Docs
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"Petrus van Staden shares his insights on minerals biotechnology. John Canterford explores plant design and operation. Gordon Bacon discusses the challenges of plant start-ups, and John Marsden offers practical solutions for reducing energy consumption in all aspects of unit operations." "Bob Shoemaker, one of the world's most respected authorities on precious metal recovery, reflects on developments and lessons learned during his half century in the business." "Hundreds of other authors provide insights on acid rock drainage, waste water and resource recovery, process development and modeling, heap leaching, the future role of hydrometallurgy, and countless other timely, important subjects."

Engineering and Microstructural Behaviour of Lime slag Treated Pyrite Bearing Coode Island Silt

Author: Binu Stanley
Format: PDF
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This research project focuses on understanding the engineering and micro-structural behaviour of lime-slag treated pyrite bearing Coode Island Silt. The poignant points of this experimental study were identification of thaumasite in stabilised soil and understanding the strength and compressibility behaviour of treated soil with curing. This form of sulfate attack (TSA) has not been reported on CIS or any other native Australian soils. Mineralogical studies using X-ray diffraction technique (XRD) and micro-structural study using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) were used to identify thaumasite. The impact of thaumasite on the engineering behaviour was studied using vane shear, unconfined compressive strength test and 1-D consolidation test. The experimental results provided an insight into the fundamental mechanism of thaumasite formation and its impact on strength and stability of treated CIS. The aggressive nature of thaumasite formation with curing and its ability to impair the strength development by breaking the cementitious bonds is understood through USC study. This effect is evidenced through XRD and SEM studies which show the degradation of cementing gel C-S-H to form thaumasite. Different types of thaumasite were also identified through the SEM work. Compressibility of treated CIS reduces considerably and yield stresses achieved are the most profound evidence. However, the presence of pyrite in CIS changes the compressibility behaviour with curing. The outcome of this project will provide the ground for future works on Coode Island Silt and other native soils in Australia which come under the classification of Acid sulphate soils (ASS). Moreover, the impact of pyrite oxidation on existing infrastructure in these soils can be understood and remediation works can be planned.

Seismic Evaluation and Rehabilitation of Structures

Author: Alper Ilki
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3319004581
Format: PDF, Kindle
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In the past, facilities considered to be at the end of their useful life were demolished and replaced with new ones that better met the functional requirements of modern society, including new safety standards. Humankind has recently recognised the threats to the environment and to our limited natural resources due to our relentless determination to destroy the old and build anew. With the awareness of these constraints and the emphasis on sustainability, in future the majority of old structures will be retrofitted to extend their service life as long as feasible. In keeping with this new approach, the EU’s Construction Products Regulation 305/2011, which is the basis of the Eurocodes, included the sustainable use of resources as an "Essential Requirement" for construction. So, the forthcoming second generation of EN-Eurocodes will cover not only the design of new structures, but the rehabilitation of existing ones as well. Most of the existing building stock and civil infrastructures are seismically deficient. When the time comes for a decision to prolong their service life with the help of structural and architectural upgrading, seismic retrofitting may be needed. Further, it is often decided to enhance the earthquake resistance of facilities that still meet their functional requirements and fulfil their purpose, if they are not earthquake-safe. In order to decide how badly a structure needs seismic upgrading or to prioritise it in a population of structures, a seismic evaluation is needed, which also serves as a guide for the extent and type of strengthening. Seismic codes do not sufficiently cover the delicate phase of seismic evaluation nor the many potential technical options for seismic upgrading; therefore research is on-going and the state-of-the-art is constantly evolving. All the more so as seismic evaluation and rehabilitation demand considerable expertise, to make best use of the available safety margins in the existing structure, to adapt the engineering capabilities and techniques at hand to the particularities of a project, to minimise disruption of use, etc. Further, as old structures are very diverse in terms of their materials and layout, seismic retrofitting does not lend itself to straightforward codified procedures or cook-book approaches. As such, seismic evaluation and rehabilitation need the best that the current state-of-the-art can offer on all aspects of earthquake engineering. This volume serves this need, as it gathers the most recent research of top seismic experts from around the world on seismic evaluation, retrofitting and closely related subjects.

Rock Engineering and Rock Mechanics Structures in and on Rock Masses

Author: R. Alejano
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1315749521
Format: PDF, ePub
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Rock Engineering and Rock Mechanics: Structures in and on Rock Masses covers the most important topics and state-of-the-art in the area of rock mechanics, with an emphasis on structures in and on rock masses. The 255 contributions (including 6 keynote lectures) from the 2014 ISRM European Rock Mechanics Symposium (EUROCK 2014, Vigo, Spain, 27-29 May 2014) are subdivided under the following 10 headings: - Rock properties and testing methods - Rock mass characterization - Rock mechanics for infrastructures - Mining and quarrying rock mechanics - Design methods and analysis - Monitoring and back analysis - Excavation and support - Case histories and Preservation of natural stone - Petroleum engineering, hydro-fracking and CO2 storage - Applicability of EUROCODE-7 in rock engineering Rock Engineering and Rock Mechanics: Structures in and on Rock Masses will be of interest to rock mechanics academics as well as to professionals who are involved in the various branches of rock engineering.

Acidic Mining Lakes

Author: Walter Geller
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3642719546
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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Acidification is a universal problem at all mining sites in which oxygenated water comes in contact with sulfide minerals or other reduced sulfur compounds. An International Workshop was held in September 1995 at the Department for Inland Water Research of the UFZ-Centre for Environmental Research in Magdeburg on the limnology of lakes created by open-cast lignite mining, emphasizing the often observed geogenic acidification after oxidation of pyrite. The volume has 25 chapters including a chapter with results of group discussions about the topics mentioned above and further problems that were identified during the meeting. The monograph gives a baseline of the state of science on the worldwide problem of geogenic acidification of lakes following human mining activities.

Biohydrometallurgy and the Environment Toward the Mining of the 21st Century

Author: Ricardo Amils
Publisher: Elsevier Science Limited
ISBN: 9780444501936
Format: PDF, ePub
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The major theme of the International Biohydrometallurgy Symposium IBS-99 'Biohydrometallurgy and the Environment toward the mining of the 21st Century', held in El Escorial (Spain) from 20-23 June 1999, is biohydrometallurgy and the environment since it is predicted that in the coming century biotechnology will make its greatest contribution in this area. From the papers in these volumes it is clear that environmental issues are already of great interest to the biohydrometallurgical community. Although all the classical biohydrometallurgical topics - e.g. bioleaching, microbiology, molecular biology, biosorption, bioremediation - are addressed, the continued emphasis is on the environmentally friendly aspects of the biotechnologies used. Given the interdisciplinary nature of the field, biologists, hydrometallurgists, geologists, chemists, physicists and engineers should be interested in this collection of papers which discuss the future trends in biohydrometallurgy.

Water in Road Structures

Author: Andrew Dawson
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1402085621
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Only book world-wide addressing this topic. The principal output of the European co-operative Action on "Water Movements in Road Pavements & Embankments". Provides unique guidance on assessing water condition and its affects on road performance. Provides unique guidance on assessing and ameliorating contaminant movement in pavement groundwater. Written by leading experts in Europe.

The Chemical Technology of Wood

Author: Harmann Wenzl
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 0323143121
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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The Chemical Technology of Wood is an eight-chapter introductory text on the developments in understanding the chemistry of wood and its chemical-technological utilization. The opening chapters of this book cover the productive aspects of forests, followed by a description of the anatomy and physical properties of wood. The subsequent chapter presents a summative wood analysis concerning its cellulose, hemicelluloses, lignin, and other extraneous components. This topic is followed by a presentation of several destructive processing of wood, including acid hydrolysis, pyrolysis, oxidation, and hydrogenolysis. The remaining chapters describe the pulp production through sulfite cooking and using alkaline reagents. This book will prove useful to chemists, engineers, biologists, foresters, and economists.