The Beginning of Heaven and Earth Has No Name

Author: Heinz von Foerster
Publisher: Meaning Systems (Fup)
ISBN: 0823255603
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Heinz von Foerster was the inventor of second-order cybernetics, which recognizes the investigator as part of the system he is investigating. The Beginning of Heaven and Earth Has No Name provides an accessible, nonmathematical, and comprehensive overview of von Foerster's cybernetic ideas and of the philosophy latent within them. It distills concepts scattered across the lifework of this scientific polymath and influential interdisciplinarian. At the same time, as a book-length interview, it does justice to von Foerster's elan as a speaker and improviser, his skill as a raconteur. Developed from a week-long conversation between the editors and von Foerster near the end of his life, this work playfully engages von Foerster in developing the difference his notion of second-order cybernetics makes for topics ranging from emergence, life, order, and thermodynamics to observation, recursion, cognition, perception, memory, and communication. The book gives an English-speaking audience a new ease of access to the rich thought and generous spirit of this remarkable and protean thinker.

Bohmsche Mechanik als Grundlage der Quantenmechanik

Author: Detlef Dürr
Publisher: Springer-Verlag
ISBN: 3642565077
Format: PDF, Docs
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In diesem Buch wird erstmalig in deutscher Sprache vorgestellt, wie sich aus einer fundamentalen mechanischen Theorie, nämlich Bohmscher Mechanik, der mathematische Formalismus und die Phänomene der Quantenmechanik ergeben. Dies steht in Analogie zur Idee, die makroskopischen Phänomene aus den mikroskopischen fundamentalen Gesetzen zu erklären. Dieses Programm wird hier vollständig in mathematischer Strenge durchgeführt, wobei die benötigten Methoden und Grundeinsichten eingeführt und erklärt werden. Nach ausführlicher Darstellung der Grundlagen beschäftigt sich der Autor mit der statistischen Analyse der Bohmschen Mechanik und entwickelt daraus die fundamentalen Konzepte der Quantenmechanik einschließlich der bisher in dieser Form noch nicht dargestellten Streutheorie. Das Buch wirft ein neues Licht auf die Grundlagenprobleme und die Paradoxien der Quantenmechanik und verbindet strengen mathematischen Formalismus mit physikalischer Anschauung.

Der seltsamste Mensch

Author: Graham Farmelo
Publisher: Springer-Verlag
ISBN: 366256579X
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Der seltsamste Mensch ist der mit dem Costa-Buchpreis ausgezeichnete Bericht über Paul Dirac, den berühmten Physiker, der manchmal als der englische Einstein bezeichnet wird. Er war einer der führenden Pioniere der großen Revolution in der Wissenschaft des zwanzigsten Jahrhunderts: der Quantenmechanik. Und er war 1933 der jüngste Theoretiker, der den Nobelpreis für Physik erhalten hatte. Dirac war seltsam wortkarg, nahm alles wörtlich und seine gehemmte Art zu kommunizieren und seine mangelnde Empathiefähigkeit wurden legendär. Während seiner erfolgreichsten Schaffensperiode bestanden seine Postkarten ins Elternhaus nur aus Berichten über das Wetter. Auf der Basis zuvor nicht entdeckter Unterlagen aus dem Familienarchiv verbindet Graham Farmelo eine kenntnisreiche Schilderung der wissenschaftlichen Leistungen mit einem einfühlsamen Portrait des Individuums Paul Dirac. Er zeigt einen Menschen, der trotz extremer sozialer Gehemmtheit fähig ist zur Liebe und zu treuer Freundschaft. Der seltsamste Mensch ist eine außerordentliche menschlich berührende Story ebenso wie ein fesselnder Bericht über eine der aufregendsten Zeiten der Wissenschaftsgeschichte.

The Search for the Meaning of Space Time and Matter

Author: Kai Woehler
Publisher: Xlibris Corporation
ISBN: 146910198X
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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The book gives a comprehensive introduction for interested general readers, into the development and structure of concepts, ideas and theory formation about the elementary building blocks of matter, the forces with which these particles interact and about the fundamental nature of space itself. Einsteins theory of the cosmos and the recent discovery of the presence of a dark energy which leads to an accelerated expansion of cosmic space, provide the background for the most astonishing recent developments in the search for the origin of space and matter. The String-Theory revolution has led to the notion that nature may not follow one unique set of laws to build worlds, but that innumerable many possible universes may exist, that worlds may be emerging and disappearing like biological species and that our existence may be extraordinarily rare and therefore precious. An introduction to the concept of emergence in self-organizing systems is given to make the connection to the idea that Emergence may be the inherent creative property of space and matter at the quantum level.

Higgs

Author: Jim Baggott
Publisher: OUP Oxford
ISBN: 019165003X
Format: PDF, Mobi
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The hunt for the Higgs particle has involved the biggest, most expensive experiment ever. So exactly what is this particle? Why does it matter so much? What does it tell us about the Universe? Did the discovery announced on 4 July 2012 finish the search? And was finding it really worth all the effort? The short answer is yes. The Higgs field is proposed as the way in which particles gain mass - a fundamental property of matter. It's the strongest indicator yet that the Standard Model of physics really does reflect the basic building blocks of our Universe. Little wonder the hunt and discovery of this new particle produced such intense media interest. Here, Jim Baggott explains the science behind the discovery, looking at how the concept of a Higgs field was invented, how the vast experiment was carried out, and its implications on our understanding of all mass in the Universe.

The New Cosmic Onion

Author: Frank Close
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9781584887997
Format: PDF, ePub
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Not since Newton’s apple has there been a physics phenomenon as deliciously appealing to the masses as Frank Close’s Cosmic Onion. Widely embraced by scientists and laypersons alike, the book quickly became an international bestseller. Translated into seven languages, it propelled the author to become a worldwide celebrity as well as an inspiration to a generation of scientists. The book’s title itself has entered popular usage as a metaphor for the layers that can be peeled away to understand the foundations of the physical world, from dimensions and galaxies, to atoms and quarks. “Close is a lucid, reliable, and enthusiastic guide to the strange and wonderful microcosmic world that dwells deep within reality” — Frank Wilczek, Herman Feshbach Professor of Physics, MIT, 2004 Nobel Prize in Physics NEW Material Explains the principles behind the Hadron Collider as well as the potential it presents Considers the recent development of the Electroweak Theory as a law of nature Explores the mysteries uncovered and the ones that may be in store with regard to top and bottom quarks Keeping still-pertinent contents from the original volume that caught the world’s attention in 1983, this fresh edition of the Cosmic Onion includes extensive new material to reflect new views of the universe. Providing explanations that explore the foundations of 21st Century science and future directions, this work offers ready access and unique perspectives to more typical topics such as the forces of nature, atoms, the nucleus, and nuclear particles. It also travels down paths that only a true pioneer and educator can venture, such as a discussion of what Professor Close refers to as the Eightfold Way including the findings, surprises, and new questions emerging from the latest work with accelerators.

Ecological Economics of the Oceans and Coasts

Author: M. G. Patterson
Publisher: Edward Elgar Publishing
ISBN: 9781782542483
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Patterson (New Zealand Centre for Ecological Economics, Massey U., New Zealand) and Glavovic (School of People, Environment and Planning at Massey U.) aim to help establish an ecological economics of the oceans and coasts by presenting 15 papers that addr

The Quantum Story

Author: J. E. Baggott
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199566844
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Utterly beautiful. Profoundly disconcerting. Quantum theory is quite simply the most successful account of the physical universe ever devised. Its concepts underpin much of the twenty-first century technology that we now take for granted. But at the same time it has completely undermined our ability to make sense of the world at its most fundamental level. Niels Bohr claimed that anybody who is not shocked by the theory has not understood it. The American physicist Richard Feynman went further: he claimed that nobody understands it. The Quantum Story begins in 1900, tracing a century of game-changing science. Popular science writer Jim Baggott first shows how, over the space of three decades, Einstein, Bohr, Heisenberg, and others formulated and refined the theory--and opened the floodgates. Indeed, since then, a torrent of ideas has flowed from the world's leading physicists, as they explore and apply the theory's bizarre implications. To take us from the story's beginning to the present day, Baggott organizes his narrative around forty turning-point moments of discovery. Many of these are inextricably bound up with the characters involved--their rivalries and their collaborations, their arguments and, not least, their excitement as they sense that they are redefining what reality means. Through the mix of story and science, we experience their breathtaking leaps of theory and experiment, as they uncover such undreamed of and mind-boggling phenomenon as black holes, multiple universes, quantum entanglement, the Higgs boson, and much more. Brisk, clear, and compelling, The Quantum Story is science writing at its best. A compelling look at the one-hundred-year history of quantum theory, it illuminates the idea as it reveals how generations of physicists have grappled with this monster ever since.