Indigenous Knowledge Ecology and Evolutionary Biology

Author: Raymond Pierotti
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
ISBN: 0203847113
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Indigenous ways of understanding and interacting with the natural world are characterized as Traditional Ecological Knowledge (TEK), which derives from emphasizing relationships and connections among species. This book examines TEK and its strengths in relation to Western ecological knowledge and evolutionary philosophy. Pierotti takes a look at the scientific basis of this approach, focusing on different concepts of communities and connections among living entities, the importance of understanding the meaning of relatedness in both spiritual and biological creation, and a careful comparison with evolutionary ecology. The text examines the themes and principles informing this knowledge, and offers a look at the complexities of conducting research from an indigenous perspective.

Indigenous Nations and Modern States

Author: Rudolph C. Ryser
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 0415808537
Format: PDF
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Indigenous peoples throughout the world tenaciously defend their lands, cultures, and their lives with resilience and determination. They have done so generation after generation. These are peoples who make up bedrock nations throughout the world in whose territories the United Nations says 80 percent of the world's life sustaining biodiversity remains. Once thought of as remnants of a human past that would soon disappear in the fog of history, indigenous peoples—as we now refer to them—have in the last generation emerged as new political actors in global, regional and local debates. As countries struggle with economic collapse, terrorism and global warming indigenous peoples demand a place at the table to decide policy about energy, boundaries, traditional knowledge, climate change, intellectual property, land, environment, clean water, education, war, terrorism, health and the role of democracy in society. In this volume Rudolph C. Ryser describes how indigenous peoples transformed themselves from anthropological curiosities into politically influential voices in domestic and international deliberations affecting everyone on the planet. He reveals in documentary detail how since the 1970s indigenous peoples politically formed governing authorities over peoples, territories and resources raising important questions and offering new solutions to profound challenges to human life.

Negotiations in the Indigenous World

Author: Ciaran O'Faircheallaigh
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317511549
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Negotiated agreements play a critical role in setting the conditions under which resource development occurs on Indigenous land. Our understanding of what determines the outcomes of negotiations between Indigenous peoples and commercial interests is very limited. With over two decades experience with Indigenous organisations and communities, Ciaran O’Faircheallaigh's book offers the first systematic analysis of agreement outcomes and the factors that shape them, based on evaluative criteria developed especially for this study; on an analysis of 45 negotiations between Aboriginal peoples and mining companies across all of Australia’s major resource-producing regions; and on detailed case studies of four negotiations in Australia and Canada.

States American Indian Nations and Intergovernmental Politics

Author: Anne F. Boxberger Flaherty
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317214048
Format: PDF, Docs
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American Indian nations are sovereign political entities within the United States. They have complex relationships with the federal government and increasingly with state governments. Regulatory conflict between Native nations and states has increased as Native nations have developed their own independent economies and some states have sought to assert their control over reservation territory. This book explores the intergovernmental conflict between Native nations and states, with a focus on the tension over the enforcement of state cigarette taxes for on-reservation sales. Anne F. Boxberger Flaherty asks: when do states and Native nations come to agreement, when do they disagree, and why are states sometimes willing to extend great efforts to assert their taxes on reservations? Flaherty uses a multi-method approach, with a historical review of expanding state involvement on reservations, a quantitative analysis of state enforcement of cigarette taxes on reservations, and a qualitative analysis of several specific case studies, including the potential for intergovernmental conflict over marijuana cultivation and sales on reservations to answer these questions. This book will be interest to scholars and researchers of Indigenous Politics, Native American Indian Politics, State Politics, and Intergovernmental Politics.

Intellectual Property Biogenetic Resources and Traditional Knowledge

Author: Graham Dutfield
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1136536272
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Biogenetic resources - the critical biological and chemical materials that underpin so much of medicine, both modern and traditional, agriculture, and wider economic activity in so many fields - are at the centre of heated debate regarding their use, development, and ownership, and the issues of ethics and equity that impinge on all of these factors. This book is a comprehensive examination of the key issues, institutions and ideologies in this area, presenting definitions and explanations of the fundamentals of intellectual property rights (IPRs), biogenetic resources and traditional knowledge. It uses the insights from this to build a picture of how these factors interact in practice, bringing to the surface issues such as: the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity, benefit sharing from the commercial use of biodiversity, biotechnological innovation and the transfer of technology, agriculture, food security, rural development, health and international justice. Part 1 describes the relevant international IPR laws, highlights the extent to which modern commerce depends on such resources, and traces the way in which modern IPR law has evolved to accommodate this dependence. Part 2 shows how stronger IPR protection in the area of life science innovation has given rise to controversies such as 'biopiracy', 'terminator' genes and genetic uniformity. Part 3 focuses on traditional knowledge, its nature, its importance, and the applicability of IPR-style protection. Part 4 covers the international negotiation and policy-making of the WTO, WIPO and CBD and the legislative initiatives of national governments of Asia, Africa and Latin America. Finally, Part 5 focuses on two developing country case studies - of India and Kenya - assessing whether they will be able to gain economic benefit from development of their natural resources within the current regulatory system and whether this will encourage the conservation and sustainable use of the resource base. With its multidisciplinary approach and breadth of coverage, this book will appeal both to those new to the subject and to those with professional and specialist interest, including students, academics, legal practitioners, government policy-makers and the private sector.

Nature Across Cultures

Author: Helaine Selin
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9401701490
Format: PDF
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Nature Across Cultures: Views of Nature and the Environment in Non-Western Cultures consists of about 25 essays dealing with the environmental knowledge and beliefs of cultures outside of the United States and Europe. In addition to articles surveying Islamic, Chinese, Native American, Aboriginal Australian, Indian, Thai, and Andean views of nature and the environment, among others, the book includes essays on Environmentalism and Images of the Other, Traditional Ecological Knowledge, Worldviews and Ecology, Rethinking the Western/non-Western Divide, and Landscape, Nature, and Culture. The essays address the connections between nature and culture and relate the environmental practices to the cultures which produced them. Each essay contains an extensive bibliography. Because the geographic range is global, the book fills a gap in both environmental history and in cultural studies. It should find a place on the bookshelves of advanced undergraduate students, graduate students, and scholars, as well as in libraries serving those groups.

Mobility and Migration in Indigenous Amazonia

Author: Miguel N. Alexiades
Publisher: Berghahn Books
ISBN: 1845459075
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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Contrary to ingrained academic and public assumptions, wherein indigenous lowland South American societies are viewed as the product of historical emplacement and spatial stasis, there is widespread evidence to suggest that migration and displacement have been the norm, and not the exception. This original and thought-provoking collection of case studies examines some of the ways in which migration, and the concomitant processes of ecological and social change, have shaped and continue to shape human-environment relations in Amazonia. Drawing on a wide range of historical time frames (from pre-conquest times to the present) and ethnographic contexts, different chapters examine the complex and important links between migration and the classification, management, and domestication of plants and landscapes, as well as the incorporation and transformation of environmental knowledge, practices, ideologies and identities.

Genetic Resources and Traditional Knowledge

Author: Tania Bubela
Publisher: Edward Elgar Publishing
ISBN: 1781002622
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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This fascinating study describes efforts to define and protect traditional knowledge and the associated issues of access to genetic resources, from the negotiation of the Convention on Biological Diversity to the Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples and the Nagoya Protocol. Drawing on the expertise of local specialists from around the globe, the chapters judiciously mix theory and empirical evidence to provide a deep and convincing understanding of traditional knowledge, innovation, access to genetic resources, and benefit sharing. Because traditional knowledge was understood in early negotiations to be subject to a property rights framework, these often became bogged down due to differing views on the rights involved. New models, developed around the notion of distributive justice and self-determination, are now gaining favor. This book suggests – through a discussion of theory and contemporary case studies from Brazil, India, Kenya and Canada – that a focus on distributive justice best advances the interests of indigenous peoples while also fostering scientific innovation in both developed and developing countries. Comprehensive as well as nuanced, Genetic Resources and Traditional Knowledge will be of great interest to scholars and students of law, political science, anthropology and geography. National and international policymakers and those interested in the environment, indigenous peoples' rights and innovation will find the book an enlightening resource.

Human Activities and the Tropical Rainforest

Author: Bernard K. Maloney
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9780792348580
Format: PDF
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Arising initially from a conference, the papers published here have been integrated into book form to provide information on human activities and the tropical rainforest in the past and present, and on the possible future of the rainforest, in a unique way. Other books have considered some, but not all, of these themes; however, none has stressed the continuity of change over time and its possible outcome for the people of the forest as well as for the forest itself. Because of the approach taken, this book should appeal across traditional disciplinary boundaries. Indeed a prime aim has been to suggest that rainforest, because of its complexity and the complexity of people-rainforest relationships throughout time, deserves study from a broad perspective. This book poses more questions than answers about the rainforest and it is hoped that it will encourage readers to think about the rainforest in a wider way than hitherto. This book is aimed at geographers (physical and human), social anthropologists, archaeologists, pedologists, foresters and tropical botanists and will be of value to graduates of various disciplines setting out to research the rainforest.

Resilience in Social Ecological Systems

Author: Marianne E. Krasny
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 131796652X
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Resilience thinking challenges us to reconsider the meaning of sustainability in a world that must constantly adapt in the face of gradual and at times catastrophic change. This volume further asks environmental education and resource management scholars to consider the relationship of environmental learning and behaviours to attributes of resilient social-ecological systems - attributes such as ecosystem services, innovative governance structures, biological and cultural diversity, and social capital. Similar to current approaches to environmental education and education for sustainable development, resilience scholarship integrates social and ecological perspectives. The authors of Resilience in social-ecological systems: the role of learning and education present a wealth of perspectives, integrating theory with reviews of empirical studies in natural resource management, and in youth, adult, and higher education. The authors explore the role of education and learning in helping social-ecological systems as they respond to change, through adaptation and transformation. This book also serves to integrate a growing literature on resilience and social learning in natural resources management, with research in environmental education and education for sustainable development. This book was originally published as a special issue of Environmental Education Research.