Informal Markets Livelihood and Politics

Author: Debdulal Saha
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1134865015
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Low industrial growth, declining agricultural sector and limited expansion of formal sector employment in India have increasingly forced the poor to take recourse to informal sources of livelihoods. Street vending is one such thriving source of self-employment across cities. This book delves into the sustenance and survival strategies of street vendors across 17 cities in India and assesses the issues revolving around self-created markets, livelihood and politics that are contested in public space. It also presents a conceptual and theoretical understanding of different socio-economic and policy concerns pertaining to street vending in the country. The study shows how despite the absence of legal frameworks and institutional support, these urban self-employed informal workers subsist by arranging ad-hoc alternatives, creating informal institutions and negotiating with formal and informal actors in the market. It also discusses the Street Vendors (Protection of Livelihood and Regulation of Street Vending) Act, 2014, and examines how inclusive the legal recognition is for these workers of informal economy. Drawing on exhaustive research and a wealth of primary data, this book will be useful to scholars and researchers in development studies, labour studies, economics, sociology and those in public policy and urban planning.

Financial Inclusion of the Marginalised

Author: Sharit K. Bhowmik
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 8132215060
Format: PDF, Docs
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This book is the product of a study conducted by the Tata Institute of Social Sciences (TISS) in collaboration with the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) and Ministry of Urban Housing and Poverty Alleviation (MoHUPA). Its objective is to highlight some of the problems faced by street vendors in conducting their daily business and to examine how financial institutions, especially those in the banking sector, can include street vendors in their credit policies. Data was collected from 15 cities across the country. Not surprisingly, while issues such as public space utilisation have been deliberated upon at length, those concerning the nature of credit transactions and concurrently the financial inclusion of street vendors have scarcely received focussed attention. In the absence of formal credit, street vendors largely depend on loan sharks, who charge high interest rates ranging from 350% to 800% per annum. The problem of formal credit aside, another equally important factor is the inflexible attitude of the civic authorities towards street vending. Given their informal status, this is particularly apparent because they are forced to conduct business in the absence of legal protection, making them vulnerable to rent seeking by the authorities. The acceptance of the National Policy for Urban Street Vendors by a few states and the subsequent bill to protect the livelihood of street vendors should help them gain legitimacy and subsequently credit to run their businesses at proper rates. The book examines and analyses these issues. ​

Employment and Labour Market in North East India

Author: Virginius Xaxa
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
ISBN: 0429823452
Format: PDF, ePub
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This book examines the structural changes in the labour market in North-East India. Going beyond the conventional study of tea and agricultural sectors, it focuses on the nature, pattern and structure of work and employment in the region as well as documents emerging shifts in the labour force towards farm to non-farm dynamics. The chapters explore historical developments in employment patterns, labour market policies, issues of gender and social-religious dimensions, as well as point to growing forms of casual, informal and contractual labour across sectors. Through large-scale data and detailed case studies on unfree labour in plantations and those employed in crafts, handloom and the manufacturing industry, the book provides insights into labour and employment in the region. It also delves into the temporal and spatial dimensions of non-farm employment and its relationship with rural income distribution and labour mobility. By bringing interdisciplinary perspectives from scholars working on North-East India, this work fills a major gap in the political economy of the labour market in the region. The volume will be useful to scholars and researchers of development studies, North-East India studies, labour studies, economics, sociology and political science as well to those involved with governance and policymaking.

Work Institutions and Sustainable Livelihood

Author: Virginius Xaxa
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9811057567
Format: PDF
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The book explores the debates surrounding sustainable livelihood in the neoliberal era effected through transformation of the nature of work and the role of institutions, particularly in the Global South. By creating gainful work and employment opportunities through formal and informal institutions using progressive instruments and innovations within rural and urban economies, livelihood becomes ‘sustainable’, thereby reducing inequality and increasing resilience among households. Based on both theoretical and empirical studies from Asia and Africa, the book establishes the relationship between three broad concepts – work, institutions and sustainable development. The content has been divided into three broad sections: Rural Economy and Its Transformations; Urbanisation and Sustainable Livelihood; and Innovations and Instruments of Transformation. This book is a valuable resource for scholars of development studies, rural and urban studies, labour studies besides economics, sociology, political science and policymaking.

The Slow Boil

Author: Jonathan Shapiro Anjaria
Publisher: Stanford University Press
ISBN: 0804799393
Format: PDF
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Street food vendors are both a symbol and a scourge of Mumbai: cheap roadside snacks are enjoyed by all, but the people who make them dance on a razor's edge of legality. While neighborhood associations want the vendors off cluttered sidewalks, many Mumbaikers appreciate the convenient bargains they offer. In The Slow Boil, Jonathan Shapiro Anjaria draws on his long-term fieldwork with these vendors to make sense of the paradoxes within the city and, thus, to create a better understanding of urban space in general. Much urban studies literature paints street vendors either as oppressed and marginalized victims or as inventive premoderns. In contrast, Anjaria acknowledges that diverse political, economic, historic, and symbolic processes create contradictions in the vendors' everday lives, like their illegality and proximity to the state, and their insecurity and permanence. Mumbai's disorderly sidewalks reflect the simmering tensions over livelihood, democracy, and rights that are central to the city but have long been overlooked. In The Slow Boil, these issues are not subsumed into a larger framework, but are explored on their own terms.

Street Vending in the Neoliberal City

Author: Kristina Graaff
Publisher: Berghahn Books
ISBN: 1782388354
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Examining street vending as a global, urban, and informalized practice found both in the Global North and Global South, this volume presents contributions from international scholars working in cities as diverse as Berlin, Dhaka, New York City, Los Angeles, Calcutta, Rio de Janeiro, and Mexico City. The aim of this global approach is to repudiate the assumption that street vending is usually carried out in the Southern hemisphere and to reveal how it also represents an essential-and constantly growing-economic practice in urban centers of the Global North. Although street vending activities vary due to local specificities, this anthology illustrates how these urban practices can also reveal global ties and developments.

The Politics of Street Food

Author: Benjamin Etzold
Publisher: Franz Steiner Verlag Wiesbaden gmbh
ISBN: 9783515106191
Format: PDF, Kindle
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In Bangladesh, the sale of food in public space is often contested: Street food is needed, but not wanted. 100,000 street vendors sell dishes, snacks, fruits, and beverages in the megacity of Dhaka. Street food is important for urban food security as mobile labourers and the poor rely on cheap, readily available and nutritious food. The authorities argue that encroachments of streets and footpaths are illegal and disorderly, and that street food is unhygienic. They therefore evict the vendors regularly. But the hawkers are somewhat protected through the informal rules of the street. While some of them are highly vulnerable to poverty and police raids, most navigate well through these contested governance regimes and can successfully sustain their livelihoods and contribute to urban food security. In this book, different conceptual perspectives are integrated on the basis of Bourdieu's Theory of Practice. It provides fresh insights into the role of street food in urban food system and contributes to a deeper understanding of the vulnerabilities of the urban poor, the informal governance of public space, and the dominant discourses on street vending. From a relational and critical perspective, this book captures "the politics of street food" and sketches innovative solutions towards fair street food governance.

Accumulation by Dispossession

Author: Swapna Banerjee-Guha
Publisher: SAGE Publishing India
ISBN: 9351509362
Format: PDF, Mobi
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The contemporary regime of globalisation and neoliberalism is creating a far-reaching impact on different scales across the world. On the urban scale it has resulted in a huge transformation of the city space, land use and reorganisation of the urban governance. This book is a provocative examination of the contemporary urban scenario in several countries, offering South Asian, North American and European perspectives. Written by some of the most eminent theorists and social scientists of our time, the chapters cover critical empirical analyses of the contemporary transformation processes of several cities and the related socio-economic implications. The book focuses on the intense spatial crisis in these metropolises, reflecting contradictory processes of inclusion and exclusion—a typical characteristic of the global city space. The above crisis, the essays argue, is essentially related to the disjuncture between the ideology of neoliberalism, its everyday practices and the related societal effects. Debunking the myth of homogenisation through globalisation, this volume exposes a divided framework in which globalisation and neoliberalism work, leading to increasing polarisation. There is a special section that focuses on Mumbai, which is especially relevant to the study of India's current urban policy and its wider ramifications. The book will be extremely useful for researchers and students of political economy, globalisation and development studies, urban studies, and for urban planners, professionals and urban activists as well.