Innovation Contested

Author: Benoît Godin
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317928180
Format: PDF, Docs
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Innovation is everywhere. In the world of goods (technology), but also in the world of words: innovation is discussed in the scientific and technical literature, but also in the social sciences and humanities. Innovation is also a central idea in the popular imaginary, in the media and in public policy. Innovation has become the emblem of the modern society and a panacea for resolving many problems. Today, innovation is spontaneously understood as technological innovation because of its contribution to economic "progress". Yet for 2,500 years, innovation had nothing to do with economics in a positive sense. Innovation was pejorative and political. It was a contested idea in philosophy, religion, politics and social affairs. Innovation only got de-contested in the last century. This occurred gradually beginning after the French revolution. Innovation shifted from a vice to a virtue. Innovation became an instrument for achieving political and social goals. In this book, Benoît Godin lucidly examines the representations and meaning(s) of innovation over time, its diverse uses, and the contexts in which the concept emerged and changed. This history is organized around three periods or episteme: the prohibition episteme, the instrument episteme, and the value episteme.

The Political Economy of Innovation Development

Author: Iurii Bazhal
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319548522
Format: PDF, ePub
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This book finds that the R&D and technological innovation of a country is not a result, but a factor, of sustained economic growth. Bazhal develops Schumpeter's theory to argue that genuine economic growth - especially in transitioning and developing countries - is only possible with innovation. With a particular focus on the work of Ukrainian economists, Tugan-Batanobvsky and Vernadsky, the text seeks to move the discipline forward and explain why innovation has become a primary factor of economic development in recent decades and why its role will become even more dominant in the future. Chapters interrogate whether modern economic theory can explain how we ensure the effective functioning of the market economy. The book shows that explanations of economists and politicians regarding the nature of the current economic and financial crisis, and the causes of huge gaps in levels of wealth in market economies, demonstrates that there are not enough satisfactory answers to this question.

Trees on Mars

Author: Hal Niedzviecki
Publisher: Seven Stories Press
ISBN: 1609806387
Format: PDF, Kindle
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The future is big right now—for perhaps the first time, our society is more focused on what is going to happen in the future than what is happening right now. In Trees on Mars: Our Obsession with the Future, cultural critic and indie entrepreneur Hal Niedzviecki asks how and when we started believing we could and should “create the future.” What is it like to live in a society utterly focused on what is going to happen next? Through visits to colleges, corporations, tech conferences, factories and more, Niedzviecki traces the story of how owning the future has become irresistible to us. In deep conversation with both the beneficiaries and victims of our relentless obsession with the future, Niedzviecki asks crucial questions: Where are we actually heading? How will we get there? And whom may we be leaving behind?

Models of Innovation

Author: Benoît Godin
Publisher: MIT Press
ISBN: 0262338815
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Models abound in science, technology, and society (STS) studies and in science, technology, and innovation (STI) studies. They are continually being invented, with one author developing many versions of the same model over time. At the same time, models are regularly criticized. Such is the case with the most influential model in STS-STI: the linear model of innovation.In this book, Benoît Godin examines the emergence and diffusion of the three most important conceptual models of innovation from the early twentieth century to the late 1980s: stage models, linear models, and holistic models. Godin first traces the history of the models of innovation constructed during this period, considering why these particular models came into being and what use was made of them. He then rethinks and debunks the historical narratives of models developed by theorists of innovation. Godin documents a greater diversity of thinkers and schools than in the conventional account, tracing a genealogy of models beginning with anthropologists, industrialists, and practitioners in the first half of the twentieth century to their later formalization in STS-STI. Godin suggests that a model is a conceptualization, which could be narrative, or a set of conceptualizations, or a paradigmatic perspective, often in pictorial form and reduced discursively to a simplified representation of reality. Why are so many things called models? Godin claims that model has a rhetorical function. First, a model is a symbol of "scientificity." Second, a model travels easily among scholars and policy makers. Calling a conceptualization or narrative or perspective a model facilitates its propagation.

Contested Ideas of Regionalism in Asia

Author: He Baogang
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317229622
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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Deepening regionalism in Asia demands new leadership. Strong elites who are committed to a supranational identity are a minimum requirement of successful regionalism. Regional leaders are increasingly seen as a new set of leaders in Europe. Currently, Asian regional leaders largely come from the diplomacy community, or trade and economic sectors. Yet further regionalization demands a new type of leadership from civil society and citizens. In this context it is important to cultivate new regional leadership through the development of regional citizenship. This book examines contested ideas of regionalism in Asia with a particular focus on two competing ideas of pan-Asianism and Pacificism. It also identifies a new trend and contestation, the fundamental shift from a civilization understanding of regionalism to a technocratic and functional understanding of regionalism in the form of regulatory regionalism. It also examines the other contested imaginations of regionalism in Asia including elitist versus participatory approaches to regionalism, and democracy-centric versus nationalism-centric approaches to regionalism.

Analytic Philosophy Without Naturalism

Author: Antonella Corradini
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1134272685
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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In recent years numerous attempts have been made by analytic philosophers to naturalize various different domains of philosophical inquiry. All of these attempts have had the common goal of rendering these areas of philosophy amenable to empirical methods, with the intention of securing for them the supposedly objective status and broad intellectual appeal currently associated with such approaches. This volume brings together internationally recognised analytic philosophers, including Alvin Plantinga, Peter van Inwagen and Robert Audi, to question the project of naturalism. The articles investigate what it means to naturalize a domain of philosophical inquiry and look at how this applies to the various sub-disciplines of philosophy including epistemology, metaphysics and the philosophy of the mind. The issue of whether naturalism is desirable is raised and the contributors take seriously the possibility that excellent analytic philosophy can be undertaken without naturalization. Controversial and thought-provoking, Analytic Philosophy Without Naturalism examines interesting and contentious methodological issues in analytic philosophy and explores the connections between philosophy and science.

Russia s Long Twentieth Century

Author: Choi Chatterjee
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317221222
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Covering the sweep of Russian history from empire to Soviet Union to post-Soviet state, Russia's Long Twentieth Century is a comprehensive yet accessible textbook that situates modern Russia in the context of world history and encourages students to analyse the ways in which citizens learnt to live within its system and create distinctly Soviet identities from its structures and ideologies. Chronologically organised but moving beyond the traditional Cold War framework, this book covers topics such as the accelerating social, economic and political shifts in the Russian empire before the Revolution of 1905, the construction of the socialist order under Bolshevik government, and the development of a new state structure, political ideology and foreign policy in the decades since the collapse of the Soviet Union. The authors highlight the polemics and disagreements that energize the field, discussing interpretations from Russian, émigré, and Western historiographies and showing how scholars diverge sharply in their understanding of key events, historical processes, and personalities. Each chapter contains a selection of primary sources and discussion questions, engaging with the voices and experiences of ordinary Soviet citizens and familiarizing students with the techniques of source criticism. Illustrated with images and maps throughout, this book is an essential introduction to twentieth-century Russian history.

The Holocaust in the Twenty First Century

Author: David M. Seymour
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317299582
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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This volume locates and explores historical and contemporary sites of contested meanings of Holocaust memory across a range of geographical, geo-political, and disciplinary contexts, identifying and critically engaging with the nature and expression of these meanings within their relevant contexts, elucidating the political, social, and cultural underpinnings and consequences of these meanings, and offering interventions in the contemporary debates of Holocaust memory that suggest ways forward for the future.

Political Theory and the European Union

Author: Richard Bellamy
Publisher:
ISBN: 9781472428646
Format: PDF, Docs
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Europe in search of legitimacy : strategies of legitimation assessed / Erik Oddvar Eriksen and John Erik Fossum -- Legitimising the Euro-"polity" and its "regime" : the normative turn in EU studies / Richard Bellamy and Dario Castiglione -- The new Europe : a federal state or a confederation of states? / Daniel J. Elazar -- The EU as a consociation : a methodologial assessment / Olivier Costa and Paul Magnette -- EU legitimacy revisited : the normative foundations of a multilevel polity / Nicole Bolleyer and Christine Reh -- We, the peoples of Europe? / Kalypso Nicolaidis -- Why Europe needs a constitution / Jürgen Habermas -- The idea of a European constitution / Pavlos Eleftheriadis -- The democratic costs of constitutionalisation : the European case / Dieter Grimm -- The constitutional conundrum of the European Union / Sergio Fabbrini -- Europe's "democratic deficit" : the question of standards / Giandomenico Majone -- The myth of Europe's democratic deficit / Andrew Moravcsik -- Why there is a democratic deficit in the EU : a response to -- Majone and moravcsik / Andreas Follesdal and Simon Hix -- Legitimacy in the multilevel European polity / Fritz W. Scharpf -- Beyond a constraining dissensus : the role of national parliaments in domesticating and normalising the politicization of European integration / Sandra Kröger and Richard Bellamy -- An emerging European public sphere / Erik Odvar Eriksen -- A theory of collective identity : making sense of the debate on a European identity / Klaus Eder -- Must Europe be Swiss? : on the idea of a voting space and the possibility of a multilingual demos / Joseph Lacey -- Civil society and EU democracy : "astroturf" representation? / Beate Kohler-Koch -- Whither European citizenship? : eros and civilisation revisited / C. Shore -- Why European citizenship? : normative approaches to supranational union / Rainer Baubock -- Citizenship, immigration, and the European social project : rights and -- Obligations of individuality / Yasemin Nuhoglu Soysal -- Solidarity in the European Union / Andrea Sangiovanni

Contested Pasts

Author: Katharine Hodgkin
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1134448244
Format: PDF
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This inter-disciplinary volume demonstrates, from a range of perspectives, the complex cultural work and struggles over meaning that lie at the heart of what we call memory. In the last decade, a focus on memory in the human sciences has encouraged new approaches to the study of the past. As the humanities and social sciences have put into question their own claims to objectivity, authority and universality, memory has appeared to offer a way of engaging with knowledge of the past as inevitably partial, subjective and local. At the same time, memory and memorial practices have become sites of contestation, and the politics of memory are increasingly prominent.