Innovation Contested

Author: Benoît Godin
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317928180
Format: PDF, Docs
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Innovation is everywhere. In the world of goods (technology), but also in the world of words: innovation is discussed in the scientific and technical literature, but also in the social sciences and humanities. Innovation is also a central idea in the popular imaginary, in the media and in public policy. Innovation has become the emblem of the modern society and a panacea for resolving many problems. Today, innovation is spontaneously understood as technological innovation because of its contribution to economic "progress". Yet for 2,500 years, innovation had nothing to do with economics in a positive sense. Innovation was pejorative and political. It was a contested idea in philosophy, religion, politics and social affairs. Innovation only got de-contested in the last century. This occurred gradually beginning after the French revolution. Innovation shifted from a vice to a virtue. Innovation became an instrument for achieving political and social goals. In this book, Benoît Godin lucidly examines the representations and meaning(s) of innovation over time, its diverse uses, and the contexts in which the concept emerged and changed. This history is organized around three periods or episteme: the prohibition episteme, the instrument episteme, and the value episteme.

The Political Economy of Innovation Development

Author: Iurii Bazhal
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319548522
Format: PDF
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This book finds that the R&D and technological innovation of a country is not a result, but a factor, of sustained economic growth. Bazhal develops Schumpeter's theory to argue that genuine economic growth - especially in transitioning and developing countries - is only possible with innovation. With a particular focus on the work of Ukrainian economists, Tugan-Batanobvsky and Vernadsky, the text seeks to move the discipline forward and explain why innovation has become a primary factor of economic development in recent decades and why its role will become even more dominant in the future. Chapters interrogate whether modern economic theory can explain how we ensure the effective functioning of the market economy. The book shows that explanations of economists and politicians regarding the nature of the current economic and financial crisis, and the causes of huge gaps in levels of wealth in market economies, demonstrates that there are not enough satisfactory answers to this question.

Futures Visions and Responsibility

Author: Martin Sand
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3658226846
Format: PDF, ePub
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Martin Sand explores the problems of responsibility at the early, visionary stages of technological development. He discusses the increasingly dominant concept of innovation and outlines how narratives about the future are currently used to facilitate technological change, to foster networks, and to raise public awareness for innovations. This set of activities is under increasing scrutiny as a form of “visioneering”. The author discusses intentionality and freedom as important, albeit fuzzy, preconditions for being responsible. He distinguishes being from holding responsible and explores this distinction’s effects on the problem of moral luck. Finally, he develops a virtue ethical framework to discuss visioneers’ and innovators’ responsibilities.​

Trees on Mars

Author: Hal Niedzviecki
Publisher: Seven Stories Press
ISBN: 1609806387
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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The future is big right now—for perhaps the first time, our society is more focused on what is going to happen in the future than what is happening right now. In Trees on Mars: Our Obsession with the Future, cultural critic and indie entrepreneur Hal Niedzviecki asks how and when we started believing we could and should “create the future.” What is it like to live in a society utterly focused on what is going to happen next? Through visits to colleges, corporations, tech conferences, factories and more, Niedzviecki traces the story of how owning the future has become irresistible to us. In deep conversation with both the beneficiaries and victims of our relentless obsession with the future, Niedzviecki asks crucial questions: Where are we actually heading? How will we get there? And whom may we be leaving behind?

Models of Innovation

Author: Benoît Godin
Publisher: MIT Press
ISBN: 0262338815
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Models abound in science, technology, and society (STS) studies and in science, technology, and innovation (STI) studies. They are continually being invented, with one author developing many versions of the same model over time. At the same time, models are regularly criticized. Such is the case with the most influential model in STS-STI: the linear model of innovation.In this book, Benoît Godin examines the emergence and diffusion of the three most important conceptual models of innovation from the early twentieth century to the late 1980s: stage models, linear models, and holistic models. Godin first traces the history of the models of innovation constructed during this period, considering why these particular models came into being and what use was made of them. He then rethinks and debunks the historical narratives of models developed by theorists of innovation. Godin documents a greater diversity of thinkers and schools than in the conventional account, tracing a genealogy of models beginning with anthropologists, industrialists, and practitioners in the first half of the twentieth century to their later formalization in STS-STI. Godin suggests that a model is a conceptualization, which could be narrative, or a set of conceptualizations, or a paradigmatic perspective, often in pictorial form and reduced discursively to a simplified representation of reality. Why are so many things called models? Godin claims that model has a rhetorical function. First, a model is a symbol of "scientificity." Second, a model travels easily among scholars and policy makers. Calling a conceptualization or narrative or perspective a model facilitates its propagation.

Socially Responsible Innovation in Security

Author: J. Peter Burgess
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1351246887
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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This book examines the possibility of socially responsible innovation in security, using an interdisciplinary approach. Responsible innovation in security refers to a comprehensive approach that aims to integrate knowledge related to stakeholders operating at both the demand and the supply side of security – technologists, citizens, policymakers and ethicists. Security innovations can only be successful in the long term if all the social, ethical and ecological impacts, and threats and opportunities, both short term and long term, are assessed and prioritized alongside technical and commercial impacts. The first part of this volume focuses on security technology innovation and its perception and acceptance by the public, while the second part delves deeper into the processes of decision-making and democratic control, raising questions about the ethical implications of security ruling. This book will be of much interest to students of critical security studies, sociology, technology studies and IR in general.

Measurement and Statistics on Science and Technology

Author: Benoît Godin
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1134326580
Format: PDF, Kindle
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How do we objectively measure scientific activities? What proportion of economic activities should a society devote to research and development? How can public-sector and private-sector research best be directed to achieve social goals? Governments and researchers from industrial countries have been measuring science and technology for more than eighty years. This book provides the first comprehensive account of the attempts to measure science and technology activities in Western countries and the successes and shortcomings of statistical systems. Godin guides readers through the historical moments that led to the development of statistics on science and technology and also examines the socio-political dynamics behind social measurement. This enlightening account will be of interest to students and academics investigating science measurement as well as policy makers working in this burgeoning field.

Political Theory and the European Union

Author: Richard Bellamy
Publisher:
ISBN: 9781472428646
Format: PDF
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Europe in search of legitimacy : strategies of legitimation assessed / Erik Oddvar Eriksen and John Erik Fossum -- Legitimising the Euro-"polity" and its "regime" : the normative turn in EU studies / Richard Bellamy and Dario Castiglione -- The new Europe : a federal state or a confederation of states? / Daniel J. Elazar -- The EU as a consociation : a methodologial assessment / Olivier Costa and Paul Magnette -- EU legitimacy revisited : the normative foundations of a multilevel polity / Nicole Bolleyer and Christine Reh -- We, the peoples of Europe? / Kalypso Nicolaidis -- Why Europe needs a constitution / Jürgen Habermas -- The idea of a European constitution / Pavlos Eleftheriadis -- The democratic costs of constitutionalisation : the European case / Dieter Grimm -- The constitutional conundrum of the European Union / Sergio Fabbrini -- Europe's "democratic deficit" : the question of standards / Giandomenico Majone -- The myth of Europe's democratic deficit / Andrew Moravcsik -- Why there is a democratic deficit in the EU : a response to -- Majone and moravcsik / Andreas Follesdal and Simon Hix -- Legitimacy in the multilevel European polity / Fritz W. Scharpf -- Beyond a constraining dissensus : the role of national parliaments in domesticating and normalising the politicization of European integration / Sandra Kröger and Richard Bellamy -- An emerging European public sphere / Erik Odvar Eriksen -- A theory of collective identity : making sense of the debate on a European identity / Klaus Eder -- Must Europe be Swiss? : on the idea of a voting space and the possibility of a multilingual demos / Joseph Lacey -- Civil society and EU democracy : "astroturf" representation? / Beate Kohler-Koch -- Whither European citizenship? : eros and civilisation revisited / C. Shore -- Why European citizenship? : normative approaches to supranational union / Rainer Baubock -- Citizenship, immigration, and the European social project : rights and -- Obligations of individuality / Yasemin Nuhoglu Soysal -- Solidarity in the European Union / Andrea Sangiovanni

Contested Pasts

Author: Katharine Hodgkin
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1134448244
Format: PDF, Kindle
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This inter-disciplinary volume demonstrates, from a range of perspectives, the complex cultural work and struggles over meaning that lie at the heart of what we call memory. In the last decade, a focus on memory in the human sciences has encouraged new approaches to the study of the past. As the humanities and social sciences have put into question their own claims to objectivity, authority and universality, memory has appeared to offer a way of engaging with knowledge of the past as inevitably partial, subjective and local. At the same time, memory and memorial practices have become sites of contestation, and the politics of memory are increasingly prominent.

Dictionary of the Political Thought of the People s Republic of China

Author: Henry He
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1315500434
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Far more than a simple glossary, this unique resource provides a detailed lexicography of political and social life in China today, and deepens our understanding of the last twenty years of enormous change in the People's Republic. Each of the 1,600 entries (1) is rendered in Chinese characters; (2) is alphabetized according to pinyin, the Chinese phonetic alphabet; (3) is translated into English; and (4) is explained in terms of the situation in which it first appeared and how its meaning shifted over time. In addition to the main body of definitions and annotations, there are three appendices, abbreviations, a name index, and a bibliography.