Insect Ecology

Author: Timothy D. Schowalter
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 0080508812
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Dr. Timothy Schowalter has succeeded in creating a unique, updated treatment of insect ecology. This revised and expanded text looks at how insects adapt to environmental conditions while maintaining the ability to substantially alter their environment. It covers a range of topics- from individual insects that respond to local changes in the environment and affect resource distribution, to entire insect communities that have the capacity to modify ecosystem conditions. Insect Ecology, Second Edition, synthesizes the latest research in the field and has been produced in full color throughout. It is ideal for students in both entomology and ecology-focused programs. NEW TO THIS EDITION: * New topics such as elemental defense by plants, chaotic models, molecular methods to measure disperson, food web relationships, and more * Expanded sections on plant defenses, insect learning, evolutionary tradeoffs, conservation biology and more * Includes more than 350 new references * More than 40 new full-color figures

Insect Ecology

Author: Timothy Duane Schowalter
Publisher:
ISBN: 012088772X
Format: PDF, Mobi
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1. Overview: scope of insect ecology - ecosystem ecology - environmental change and disturbance. Section I - Ecology of individual insects - 2. Reponses to abiotic conditions: I. Physical template; II. Surviving variable abiotic conditions; III. Factors affecting dispersal behavior; IV. Responses to anthropogenic changes. 3. Resource acquisition: I. Resource quality; II. Resource acceptability; III. Resource availability. 4. Resource allocation: I. resource budget; II. Allocation of assimilated resources; III. Efficiency of resource use. Section II - Population ecology: 5. Population systems: I. Population structure; II. Population processes; III. Life history characteristics; IV. Parameter estimation. 6. Population dynamics: I. Population fluctuation; II. Factors affecting population size; III. Models of population change. 7. Biogeography: I. Geographic distribution; II. Spatial dynamics of populations; III. Anthropogenic effects on spatial dynamics. Section III - Community ecology - 8. Species interactions: Classes of interactions; II. Factors affecting interactions; III. Consequences of interactions. 9. Community structures: I. Approaches to describing communities; II. Patterns of community structure; III. Determinants of community structure. 10. Community dynamic: I. Short-term change in community structure ; II. Successional change in community structure; III. Paleoecology; IV. Diversity versus stability. Section IV - Ecosystem level - 11. Ecosystem structure and function: I. Ecosystem structure; II. Energy flow; III. Biogeochemical cycling; IV. Climate modification; V. Ecosystem modeling. 12. Herbivory: I. Types and patterns of herbivory; II. Effects of herbivory. 13. Pollination, seed predation, and seed dispersal: I. Types and patterns of pollination; II. Effects of pollination; III. Types and patterns of seed predation and dispersal; IV. Effects os seed predation and dispersal. 14. Decomposition and pedogenesis: I. Types and patterns of detritivory and burrowing; II. Effects of detritivory and burrowing. 15. Insects as regulators of ecosystem processes: I. Development of the concept; II. Ecosystems as cybernetic system. Section V - Synthesis - 16. Synthesis - applications - critical issues.

Das egoistische Gen

Author: Richard Dawkins
Publisher: Springer-Verlag
ISBN: 3642553915
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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p”Ein auch heute noch bedeutsamer Klassiker“ Daily Express Sind wir Marionetten unserer Gene? Nach Richard Dawkins ́ vor über 30 Jahren entworfener und heute noch immer provozierender These steuern und dirigieren unsere von Generation zu Generation weitergegebenen Gene uns, um sich selbst zu erhalten. Alle biologischen Organismen dienen somit vor allem dem Überleben und der Unsterblichkeit der Erbanlagen und sind letztlich nur die "Einweg-Behälter" der "egoistischen" Gene. Sind wir Menschen also unserem Gen-Schicksal hilflos ausgeliefert? Dawkins bestreitet dies und macht uns Hoffnung: Seiner Meinung nach sind wir nämlich die einzige Spezies mit der Chance, gegen ihr genetisches Schicksal anzukämpfen.

Insects and Sustainability of Ecosystem Services

Author: Timothy D. Schowalter
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 146655391X
Format: PDF
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With few exceptions, insects are perceived in industrialized countries as undesirable pests. In reality, relatively few insects interfere with us or our resources. Most have benign or positive effects on ecosystem services, and many represent useful resources in non-industrialized countries. Challenging traditional perceptions of the value of insects, Insects and Sustainability of Ecosystem Services explores the ways insects affect the ecosystem services we depend upon. It also fosters an appreciation for the amazing diversity, adaptive ability, and natural roles of insects. The book discusses how the ways in which we manage insects will determine an ecosystem’s capacity to continue to supply services. It reviews aspects of insect physiology, behavior, and ecology that affect their interactions with other ecosystem components and ecosystem services, emphasizing critical effects of insects on the sustainability of ecosystem processes and services. The author examines the integration of insect ecology with self-regulatory aspects of ecosystems that control primary production, energy and nutrient fluxes, and global climate—functions that underlie the sustainability of ecosystem services. Clearly, we need environmental policies that meet needs for pest control where warranted, but do not undermine the important contributions of insects to sustaining ecosystem processes and services. With in-depth coverage of the multiple, often compensatory, effects of insects on various resources or ecosystem services and on the consequences of control tactics for those resources or services, Insects and Sustainability of Ecosystem Services recommends changes in perspectives and policies regarding insects that will contribute to sustainability of ecosystem services.

W rterbuch der kologie

Author: Matthias Schaefer
Publisher: Springer-Verlag
ISBN: 382742562X
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Die Stichwörter wurden so ausgewählt, dass man Texte aus allen Teilgebieten der Ökologie durch Nachschlagen der Begriffe präzise verstehen kann. Viele Schlüsseldefinitionen und Begriffsfelder sind ausführlicher gehalten, um in Konzepte der Ökologie einzuführen. Die englischen Übersetzungen der Begriffe und das englisch-deutsche Register erleichtern den Zugang zur englischen Fachliteratur und sind eine Hilfe beim Verfassen eigener englischer Texte. Die fünfte Auflage wurde gründlich überarbeitet und aktualisiert, weil moderne Teilgebiete der Ökologie an Bedeutung gewonnen haben (molekulare Ökologie, „community ecology“, Invasionsökologie, Systemökologie, Populationsgenetik, Evolutionsbiologie, Verhaltensökologie, Angewandte Ökologie).

The Evolution of Insect Mating Systems

Author: David Shuker
Publisher: OUP Oxford
ISBN: 0191030880
Format: PDF
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Insects display a staggering diversity of mating and social behaviours. Studying these systems provides insights into a wide range of evolutionary and behavioural questions, such as the evolution of sex, sexual selection, sexual conflict, and parental care. This edited volume provides an authoritative update of the landmark book in the field, The Evolution of Insect Mating Systems (Thornhill and Alcock, 1983), which had such a huge impact in shaping adaptationist approaches to the study of animal behaviour and influencing the study of the evolution of reproductive behaviour far beyond the taxonomic remit of insects. This accessible new volume brings the empirical and conceptual scope of the original book fully up to date, incorporating the wealth of new knowledge and research of the last 30 years. It explores the evolution of complex forms of sex determination in insects, and the role of sexual selection in shaping the evolution of mating systems. Selection arising via male contest competition and female choice (both before and after copulation) are discussed, as are the roles of parasites and pathogens in mediating the strength of sexual selection, and the role that parental care plays in successful reproduction. The Evolution of Insect Mating Systems is suitable for both graduate students and researchers interested in insect mating systems or behaviour from an evolutionary, genetical, physiological, or ecological perspective. Due to its interdisciplinary and concept-driven approach, it will also be of relevance and use to a broad audience of evolutionary biologists.

Das Kyoto Protokoll

Author: Sebastian Oberthür
Publisher: Springer-Verlag
ISBN: 3663014347
Format: PDF
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Die internationale Klimapolitik ist an einem Wendepunkt angekommen. Die Annahme des Kyoto-Protokolls ist ein großer Schritt in dem Versuch der Menschheit, die schädlichen Folgen des Klimawandels zu begrenzen. Dieses Buch, geschrieben von zwei deutschen Experten, erklärt die naturwissenschaftlichen, ökonomischen sowie politischen Bedingungen desTreibhauseffekts und erläutert die Hintergründe der Annahme des Kyoto-Protokolls. Das Buch analysiert in seinem Mittelteil den Vertragstext im Stile eines Gesetzeskommentars, nennt die offenen Fragen und gibt mögliche Antworten für die Weiterentwicklung der Normen. In einem dritten Teil werden Schlussfolgerungen gezogen, die politische Landschaft nach Kyoto beleuchtet und eine Leadership-Initiative für die Europäische Union vorgestellt, um die Handlungsmacht gegenüber den USA wieder zu erlangen.

Empire of the Beetle

Author: Andrew Nikiforuk
Publisher: Greystone Books Ltd
ISBN: 1553658949
Format: PDF, ePub
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Beginning in the late 1980s, a series of improbable bark beetle outbreaks unsettled iconic forests and communities across western North America. An insect the size of a rice kernel eventually killed more than 30 billion pine and spruce trees from Alaska to New Mexico. Often appearing in masses larger than schools of killer whales, the beetles engineered one of the world's greatest forest die-offs since the deforestation of Europe by peasants between the eleventh and thirteenth centuries. The beetle didn't act alone. Misguided science, out-of-control logging, bad public policy, and a hundred years of fire suppression created a volatile geography that released the world's oldest forest manager from all natural constraints. Like most human empires, the beetles exploded wildly and then crashed, leaving in their wake grieving landowners, humbled scientists, hungry animals, and altered watersheds. Although climate change triggered this complex event, human arrogance assuredly set the table. With little warning, an ancient insect pointedly exposed the frailty of seemingly stable manmade landscapes. Drawing on first-hand accounts from entomologists, botanists, foresters, and rural residents, award-winning journalist Andrew Nikiforuk, investigates this unprecedented beetle plague, its startling implications, and the lessons it holds.