Interactions of C N P and S Biogeochemical Cycles and Global Change

Author: Roland Wollast
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3642760643
Format: PDF
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This book is a natural extension of the SCOPE (Scientific Committee of Problems on the Environment) volumes on the carbon (C), nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and sulfur (S) biogeochemical cycles and their interactions (Likens, 1981; Bolin and Cook, 1983). Substantial progress in the knowledge of these cycles has been made since publication of those volumes. In particular, the nature and extent of biological and inorganic interactions between these cycles have been identified, positive and negative feedbacks recognized and the relationship between the cycles and global environmental change preliminarily elucidated. In March 1991, a NATO Advanced Research Workshop was held for one week in Melreux, Belgium to reexamine the biogeochemical cycles of C, N, P and S on a variety of time and space scales from a holistic point of view. This book is the result of that workshop. The biogeochemical cycles of C, N, P and S are intimately tied to each other through biological productivity and subsequently to problems of global environmental change. These problems may be the most challenging facing humanity in the 21 st century. In the broadest sense, "global change" encompasses both changes to the status of the large, globally connected atmospheric, oceanic and terrestrial environments (e. g. tropospheric temperature increase) and change occurring as the result of nearly simultaneous local changes in many regions of the world (e. g. eutrophication).

Biogeochemical Cycling and Sediment Ecology

Author: J. Gray
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9401146497
Format: PDF
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Oceanographic discontinuities (e. g. frontal systems, upwelling areas, ice edges) are often areas of enhanced biological productivity. Considerable research on the physics and biology of the physical boundaries defining these discontinues has been accomplished (see [I D. The interface between water and sediment is the largest physical boundary in the ocean, but has not received a proportionate degree of attention. The purpose of the Nato Advanced Research Workshop (ARW) was to focus on soft-sediment systems by identifying deficiencies in our knowledge of these systems and defining key issues in the management of coastal sedimentary habitats. Marine sediments play important roles in the marine ecosystem and the biosphere. They provide food and habitat for many marine organisms, some of which are commercially important. More importantly from a global perspective, marine sediments also provide "ecosystem goods and services" [2J. Organic matter from primary production in the water column and contaminants scavenged by particles accumulate in sediments where their fate is determined by sediment processes such as bioturbation and biogeochemical cycling. Nutrients are regenerated and contaminants degraded in sediments. Under some conditions, carbon accumulates in coastal and shelf sediments and may by removed from the carbon cycle for millions of years, having a potentially significant impact on global climate change. Sediments also protect coasts. The economic value of services provided by coastal areas has recently been estimated to be on the order of $12,568 9 10 y" [3J, far in excess of the global GNP.

Nitrogen Cycling in the North Atlantic Ocean and its Watersheds

Author: Robert W. Howarth
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9400917767
Format: PDF
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Human activity has dramatically altered the global nitrogen cycle in recent decades. These changes are not evenly distributed around the world; rather, they are greatest in regions of significant industrial and agricultural activity, as the synthesis and use of inorganic fertilizers, cultivation of legumes, burning of fossil fuels, and the simple act of concentrating humans and animals in dense populations all lead to the release of excess, reactive forms of nitrogen into the environment. In part because reactive nitrogen is frequently a limiting nutrient in many terrestrial and aquatic systems, an excess can lead to a variety of adverse effects on both environmental and human health. The North Atlantic Ocean and its contributing watersheds constitute a region which has seen perhaps the greatest increase in anthropogenically-derived nitrogen. In May of 1994, the International Scope Nitrogen Project, with funding from the Andrew Mellon Foundation, the United Nations Environment Program, and the World Meteorological Organization, sponsored a workshop held on Block Island, RI, USA, entitled `Nitrogen Dynamics of the North Atlantic Basin'. More than 50 scientists from 12 different countries convened with a unique set of goals: an integrated and comprehensive estimate of the current nitrogen cycle of the ocean, coastal systems, and contributing watersheds of the North Atlantic region; an analysis of human-induced changes to those cycles; and an assessment of the current and future effects of human-induced changes to nitrogen cycling throughout the globe.