International Norms and Cycles of Change

Author: Wayne Sandholtz
Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand
ISBN:
Format: PDF, Kindle
Download Now
Wayne Sandholtz and Kendall Stiles sketch the primary theoretical perspectives on international norm change, the 'legalisation' and 'transnational activist' approaches, and argue that both are limited by their focus on international rules as outcomes.

Prohibiting Plunder

Author: Wayne Sandholtz
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 9780199725472
Format: PDF, ePub
Download Now
For much of history, the rules of war decreed that "to the victor go the spoils." The winners in warfare routinely seized for themselves the artistic and cultural treasures of the defeated; plunder constituted a marker of triumph. By the twentieth century, international norms declared the opposite, that cultural monuments should be shielded from destruction or seizure. Prohibiting Plunder traces and explains the emergence of international rules against wartime looting of cultural treasures, and explores how anti-plunder norms have developed over the past 200 years. The book covers highly topical events including the looting of thousands of antiquities from the Iraqi National Museum in Baghdad, and the return of "Holocaust Art" by prominent museums, including the highly publicized return of five Klimt paintings from the Austrian Gallery to a Holocaust survivor. The historical narrative includes first-hand reports, official documents, and archival records. Equally important, the book uncovers the debates and negotiations that produced increasingly clear and well-defined anti-plunder norms. The historical accounts in Prohibiting Plunder serve as confirming examples of an important dynamic of international norm change. Rules evolve in cycles; in each cycle, specific actions trigger arguments about the meaning and application of rules, and those arguments in turn modify the rules. International norms evolve through a succession of such cycles, each one drawing on previous developments and each one reshaping the normative context for subsequent actions and disputes. Prohibiting Plunder shows how historical episodes interlinked to produce modern, treaty-based rules against wartime plunder of cultural treasures.

International Norms Normative Change and the UN Sustainable Development Goals

Author: Noha Shawki
Publisher: Rowman & Littlefield
ISBN: 1498533035
Format: PDF, Mobi
Download Now
This volume uses a theoretical framework that centers on norm evolution and change to study norms that underpin some of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) included in the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. Its chapters are written by authors with diverse backgrounds and in-depth knowledge of different areas of sustainable development.

How Interpretation Makes International Law

Author: Ingo Venzke
Publisher: OUP Oxford
ISBN: 0191631957
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
Download Now
Challenging the classic narrative that sovereign states make the law that constrains them, this book argues that treaties and other sources of international law form only the starting point of legal authority. Interpretation can shift the meaning of texts and, in its own way, make law. In the practice of interpretation actors debate the meaning of the written and customary laws, and so contribute to the making of new law. In such cases it is the actor's semantic authority that is key - the capacity for their interpretation to be accepted and become established as new reference points for legal discourse. The book identifies the practice of interpretation as a significant space for international lawmaking, using the key examples of the UN High Commissioner for Refugees and the Appellate Body of the WTO to show how international institutions are able to shape and develop their constituent instruments by adding layers of interpretation, and moving the terms of discourse. The book applies developments in linguistics to the practice of international legal interpretation, building on semantic pragmatism to overcome traditional explanations of lawmaking and to offer a fresh account of how the practice of interpretation makes international law. It discusses the normative implications that arise from viewing interpretation in this light, and the implications that the importance of semantic changes has for understanding the development of international law. The book tests the potential of international law and its doctrine to respond to semantic change, and ultimately ponders how semantic authority can be justified democratically in a normative pluriverse.

Research Handbook on the Theory and Practice of International Lawmaking

Author: Catherine Brölmann
Publisher: Edward Elgar Publishing
ISBN: 1781953228
Format: PDF, Kindle
Download Now
The global landscape has changed profoundly over the past decades. As a result, the making of international law and the way we think about it has become more and more diversified. This Research Handbook offers a comprehensive guide to the theory and practice of international lawmaking today. It takes stock at both the conceptual and the empirical levels of the instruments, processes, and actors involved in the making of international law. The editors have taken an approach which carefully combines theory and practice in order to provide both an overview and a critical reflection of international lawmaking. Comprehensive and well-structured, the book contains essays by leading scholars on key aspects of international lawmaking and on lawmaking in the main issue areas. Attention is paid to classic processes as well as new developments and shades of normativity. This timely and authoritative Handbook will be a valuable resource for academics, students, legal practitioners, diplomats, government and international organization officials as well as civil society representatives.

The Globalization and Development Reader

Author: J. Timmons Roberts
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1118735382
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
Download Now
This revised and updated second edition of The Globalization and Development Reader builds on the considerable success of a first edition that has been used around the world. It combines selected readings and editorial material to provide a coherent text with global coverage, reflecting new theoretical and empirical developments. Main text and core reference for students and professionals studying the processes of social change and development in “third world” countries. Carefully excerpted materials facilitate the understanding of classic and contemporary writings Second edition includes 33 essential readings, including 21 new selections New pieces cover the impact of the recession in the global North, global inequality and uneven development, gender, international migration, the role of cities, agriculture and on the governance of pharmaceuticals and climate change politics Increased coverage of China and India help to provide genuinely global coverage, and for a student readership the materials have been subject to a higher degree of editing in the new edition Includes a general introduction to the field, and short, insightful section introductions to each reading New readings include selections by Alexander Gershenkron, Alice Amsden, Amartya Sen, Anne-Marie Slaughter, Cecile Jackson, Dani Rodrik, David Harvey, Greta Krippner, Kathryn Sikkink, Leslie Sklair, Margaret E. Keck, Michael Burawoy, Nitsan Chorev, Oscar Lewis, Patrick Bond, Peter Evans, Philip McMichael, Pranab Bardhan, Ruth Pearson, Sarah Babb, Saskia Sassen, and Steve Radelet

Disease Diplomacy

Author: Sara E. Davies
Publisher: JHU Press
ISBN: 1421416492
Format: PDF, Kindle
Download Now
In the age of air travel and globalized trade, pathogens that once took months or even years to spread beyond their regions of origin can now circumnavigate the globe in a matter of hours. Amid growing concerns about such epidemics as Ebola, SARS, MERS, and H1N1, disease diplomacy has emerged as a key foreign and security policy concern as countries work to collectively strengthen the global systems of disease surveillance and control. The revision of the International Health Regulations (IHR), eventually adopted by the World Health Organization’s member states in 2005, was the foremost manifestation of this novel diplomacy. The new regulations heralded a profound shift in international norms surrounding global health security, significantly expanding what is expected of states in the face of public health emergencies and requiring them to improve their capacity to detect and contain outbreaks. Drawing on Martha Finnemore and Kathryn Sikkink’s "norm life cycle" framework and based on extensive documentary analysis and key informant interviews, Disease Diplomacy traces the emergence of these new norms of global health security, the extent to which they have been internalized by states, and the political and technical constraints governments confront in attempting to comply with their new international obligations. The authors also examine in detail the background, drafting, adoption, and implementation of the IHR while arguing that the very existence of these regulations reveals an important new understanding: that infectious disease outbreaks and their management are critical to national and international security. The book will be of great interest to academic researchers, postgraduate students, and advanced undergraduates in the fields of global public health, international relations, and public policy, as well as health professionals, diplomats, and practitioners with a professional interest in global health security.

Implementation and World Politics

Author: Alexander Betts
Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA
ISBN: 0198712782
Format: PDF, Mobi
Download Now
A significant amount of International Relations scholarship focuses on the role of international norms in world politics. This work focuses mainly on how these norms emerge and governments sign and ratify them. Yet, it tells us very little about the conditions under which these norms actually make any difference to people's lives. In order to address this analytical gap, the book develops an original conceptual framework for understanding the neglected role ofimplementation in world politics. It applies this framework to explain variation in the impact of a range of people-centred norms relating to humanitarianism, human rights, and development.

The Evolution of Cyber War

Author: Brian M. Mazanec
Publisher: U of Nebraska Press
ISBN: 1612347630
Format: PDF
Download Now
"In January 2014 Pope Francis called the Internet a "gift from God." Months later former Secretary of Defense, Leon Panetta, described cyber warfare as "the most serious threat in the 21st century," capable of destroying our entire infrastructure and crippling the nation. Already, cyber warfare has impacted countries around the world: Estonia in 2007, Georgia in 2008, and Iran in 2010; and, as with other methods of war, cyber technology has the ability to be used not only on military forces and facilities, but on civilian targets.Our computers have become spies and tools for terrorism, and a have allowed for a new, unchecked method of war.And yet, cyber warfare is still in its infancy, with inumerable possibilities and contingencies for how such a war may play out in the coming decades. Cyber War Taboo?: The Evolution of Norms for Emerging-Technology Weapons, from Chemical Weapons to Cyber Warfare examines the international development of constraining norms for cyber warfare and and predicts how those norms will unfold in the future. Using case studies for other emerging-technology weapons--chemical and biological weapons, strategic bombing, and nuclear weapons--author Brian Mazanec expands previous definitions of norm evolution theory and offers recommendations for citizens and U.S. policymakers and as they grapple with the impending reality of cyber war"--

No Ordinary Disruption

Author: Richard Dobbs
Publisher: PublicAffairs
ISBN: 1610397622
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
Download Now
Our intuition on how the world works could well be wrong. We are surprised when new competitors burst on the scene, or businesses protected by large and deep moats find their defenses easily breached, or vast new markets are conjured from nothing. Trend lines resemble saw-tooth mountain ridges. The world not only feels different. The data tell us it is different. Based on years of research by the directors of the McKinsey Global Institute, No Ordinary Disruption: The Four Forces Breaking all the Trends is a timely and important analysis of how we need to reset our intuition as a result of four forces colliding and transforming the global economy: the rise of emerging markets, the accelerating impact of technology on the natural forces of market competition, an aging world population, and accelerating flows of trade, capital and people. Our intuitions formed during a uniquely benign period for the world economy—often termed the Great Moderation. Asset prices were rising, cost of capital was falling, labour and resources were abundant, and generation after generation was growing up more prosperous than their parents. But the Great Moderation has gone. The cost of capital may rise. The price of everything from grain to steel may become more volatile. The world's labor force could shrink. Individuals, particularly those with low job skills, are at risk of growing up poorer than their parents. What sets No Ordinary Disruption apart is depth of analysis combined with lively writing informed by surprising, memorable insights that enable us to quickly grasp the disruptive forces at work. For evidence of the shift to emerging markets, consider the startling fact that, by 2025, a single regional city in China—Tianjin—will have a GDP equal to that of the Sweden, of that, in the decades ahead, half of the world's economic growth will come from 440 cities including Kumasi in Ghana or Santa Carina in Brazil that most executives today would be hard-pressed to locate on a map. What we are now seeing is no ordinary disruption but the new facts of business life— facts that require executives and leaders at all levels to reset their operating assumptions and management intuition.