Introduction to Bio Ontologies

Author: Peter N. Robinson
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1439836663
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Introduction to Bio-Ontologies explores the computational background of ontologies. Emphasizing computational and algorithmic issues surrounding bio-ontologies, this self-contained text helps readers understand ontological algorithms and their applications. The first part of the book defines ontology and bio-ontologies. It also explains the importance of mathematical logic for understanding concepts of inference in bio-ontologies, discusses the probability and statistics topics necessary for understanding ontology algorithms, and describes ontology languages, including OBO (the preeminent language for bio-ontologies), RDF, RDFS, and OWL. The second part covers significant bio-ontologies and their applications. The book presents the Gene Ontology; upper-level ontologies, such as the Basic Formal Ontology and the Relation Ontology; and current bio-ontologies, including several anatomy ontologies, Chemical Entities of Biological Interest, Sequence Ontology, Mammalian Phenotype Ontology, and Human Phenotype Ontology. The third part of the text introduces the major graph-based algorithms for bio-ontologies. The authors discuss how these algorithms are used in overrepresentation analysis, model-based procedures, semantic similarity analysis, and Bayesian networks for molecular biology and biomedical applications. With a focus on computational reasoning topics, the final part describes the ontology languages of the Semantic Web and their applications for inference. It covers the formal semantics of RDF and RDFS, OWL inference rules, a key inference algorithm, the SPARQL query language, and the state of the art for querying OWL ontologies. Web Resource Software and data designed to complement material in the text are available on the book’s website: http://bio-ontologies-book.org The site provides the R Robo package developed for the book, along with a compressed archive of data and ontology files used in some of the exercises. It also offers teaching/presentation slides and links to other relevant websites. This book provides readers with the foundation to use ontologies as a starting point for new bioinformatics research projects or to support current molecular genetics research projects. By supplying a self-contained introduction to OBO ontologies and the Semantic Web, it bridges the gap between both fields and helps readers see what each can contribute to the analysis and understanding of biomedical data.

Phenomics

Author: John M. Hancock
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1466590963
Format: PDF, Kindle
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As our ability to acquire massive amounts of information about genome variation accelerates it is becoming increasingly clear that to make maximum use of this information we also need well-structured, systematic data on the phenotypic consequences of genomic changes. Phenomics is the new discipline of using standardized measurement techniques to characterize the phenotypic effects of random or systematic genome modifications (for example randomly generated mutations or systematic gene knockouts). This approach is now being used in an increasing range of species and systems. In this book, experts working in phenomics in most of the major species and systems that are currently being studied present overviews of the field from their different, but overlapping perspectives.

Mathematics as a Tool

Author: Johannes Lenhard
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319544691
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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This book puts forward a new role for mathematics in the natural sciences. In the traditional understanding, a strong viewpoint is advocated, on the one hand, according to which mathematics is used for truthfully expressing laws of nature and thus for rendering the rational structure of the world. In a weaker understanding, many deny that these fundamental laws are of an essentially mathematical character, and suggest that mathematics is merely a convenient tool for systematizing observational knowledge. The position developed in this volume combines features of both the strong and the weak viewpoint. In accordance with the former, mathematics is assigned an active and even shaping role in the sciences, but at the same time, employing mathematics as a tool is taken to be independent from the possible mathematical structure of the objects under consideration. Hence the tool perspective is contextual rather than ontological. Furthermore, tool-use has to respect conditions like suitability, efficacy, optimality, and others. There is a spectrum of means that will normally differ in how well they serve particular purposes. The tool perspective underlines the inevitably provisional validity of mathematics: any tool can be adjusted, improved, or lose its adequacy upon changing practical conditions.

Systems Biology

Author: Edda Klipp
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 3527336362
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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This advanced textbook is tailored for an introductory course in Systems Biology and is well-suited for biologists as well as engineers and computer scientists. It comes with student-friendly reading lists and a companion website featuring a short exam prep version of the book and educational modeling programs. The text is written in an easily accessible style and includes numerous worked examples and study questions in each chapter. For this edition, a section on medical systems biology has been included.

Statistics and Data Analysis for Microarrays Using R and Bioconductor Second Edition

Author: Sorin Drăghici
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1439809763
Format: PDF, Docs
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Richly illustrated in color, Statistics and Data Analysis for Microarrays Using R and Bioconductor, Second Edition provides a clear and rigorous description of powerful analysis techniques and algorithms for mining and interpreting biological information. Omitting tedious details, heavy formalisms, and cryptic notations, the text takes a hands-on, example-based approach that teaches students the basics of R and microarray technology as well as how to choose and apply the proper data analysis tool to specific problems. New to the Second Edition Completely updated and double the size of its predecessor, this timely second edition replaces the commercial software with the open source R and Bioconductor environments. Fourteen new chapters cover such topics as the basic mechanisms of the cell, reliability and reproducibility issues in DNA microarrays, basic statistics and linear models in R, experiment design, multiple comparisons, quality control, data pre-processing and normalization, Gene Ontology analysis, pathway analysis, and machine learning techniques. Methods are illustrated with toy examples and real data and the R code for all routines is available on an accompanying CD-ROM. With all the necessary prerequisites included, this best-selling book guides students from very basic notions to advanced analysis techniques in R and Bioconductor. The first half of the text presents an overview of microarrays and the statistical elements that form the building blocks of any data analysis. The second half introduces the techniques most commonly used in the analysis of microarray data.

Knowledge Discovery in Proteomics

Author: Igor Jurisica
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9781420035162
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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Multi-modal representations, the lack of complete and consistent domain theories, rapid evolution of domain knowledge, high dimensionality, and large amounts of missing information - these are challenges inherent in modern proteomics. As our understanding of protein structure and function becomes ever more complicated, we have reached a point where the actual management of data is a major stumbling block to the interpretation of results from proteomic platforms, to knowledge discovery. Knowledge Discovery in Proteomics presents timely, authoritative discussions on some of the key issues in high-throughput proteomics, exploring examples that represent some of the major challenges of knowledge discovery in the field. The authors focus on five specific domains: Mass spectrometry-based protein analysis Protein-protein interaction network analysis Systematic high-throughput protein crystallization Systematic, integrated analysis of multiple data repositories Systems biology In each area, the authors describe the challenges created by the type of data produced and present potential solutions to the problem of data mining within the domain. They take a systems approach, covering individual data and integrating its computational aspects, from data preprocessing, storage, and access to analysis, visualization, and interpretation. With clear exposition, practical examples, and rich illustrations, this book presents an outstanding overview of this emerging field, and builds the background needed for the fruitful exchange of ideas between computational and biological scientists.

Meta analysis and Combining Information in Genetics and Genomics

Author: Rudy Guerra
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9781420010626
Format: PDF, Docs
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Novel Techniques for Analyzing and Combining Data from Modern Biological Studies Broadens the Traditional Definition of Meta-Analysis With the diversity of data and meta-data now available, there is increased interest in analyzing multiple studies beyond statistical approaches of formal meta-analysis. Covering an extensive range of quantitative information combination methods, Meta-analysis and Combining Information in Genetics and Genomics looks at how to analyze multiple studies from a broad perspective. After presenting the basic ideas and tools of meta-analysis, the book addresses the combination of similar data types: genotype data from genome-wide linkage scans and data derived from microarray gene expression experiments. The expert contributors show how some data combination problems can arise even within the same basic framework and offer solutions to these problems. They also discuss the combined analysis of different data types, giving readers an opportunity to see data combination approaches in action across a wide variety of genome-scale investigations. As heterogeneous data sets become more common, biological understanding will be significantly aided by jointly analyzing such data using fundamentally sound statistical methodology. This book provides many novel techniques for analyzing data from modern biological studies that involve multiple data sets, either of the same type or multiple data sources.

Handbook of Hidden Markov Models in Bioinformatics

Author: Martin Gollery
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1420011804
Format: PDF, ePub
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Demonstrating that many useful resources, such as databases, can benefit most bioinformatics projects, the Handbook of Hidden Markov Models in Bioinformatics focuses on how to choose and use various methods and programs available for hidden Markov models (HMMs). The book begins with discussions on key HMM and related profile methods, including the HMMER package, the sequence analysis method (SAM), and the PSI-BLAST algorithm. It then provides detailed information about various types of publicly available HMM databases, such as Pfam, PANTHER, COG, and metaSHARK. After outlining ways to develop and use an automated bioinformatics workflow, the author describes how to make custom HMM databases using HMMER, SAM, and PSI-BLAST. He also helps you select the right program to speed up searches. The final chapter explores several applications of HMM methods, including predictions of subcellular localization, posttranslational modification, and binding site. By learning how to effectively use the databases and methods presented in this handbook, you will be able to efficiently identify features of biological interest in your data.