Introduction to the Basic Concepts of Modern Physics

Author: Carlo M. Becchi
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9788847006072
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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These notes are designed as a text book for a course on the Modern Physics Theory for undergraduate students. The purpose is providing a rigorous and self-contained presentation of the simplest theoretical framework using elementary mathematical tools. A number of examples of relevant applications and an appropriate list of exercises and answered questions are also given.

Introduction to Particle Cosmology

Author: Cosimo Bambi
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3662480786
Format: PDF, Docs
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This book introduces the basic concepts of particle cosmology and covers all the main aspects of the Big Bang Model (expansion of the Universe, Big Bang Nucleosynthesis, Cosmic Microwave Background, large scale structures) and the search for new physics (inflation, baryogenesis, dark matter, dark energy). It also includes the majority of recent discoveries, such as the precise determination of cosmological parameters using experiments like WMAP and Planck, the discovery of the Higgs boson at LHC, the non-discovery to date of supersymmetric particles, and the search for the imprint of gravitational waves on the CMB polarization by Planck and BICEP. This textbook is based on the authors’ courses on Cosmology, and aims at introducing Particle Cosmology to senior undergraduate and graduate students. It has been especially written to be accessible even for those students who do not have a strong background in General Relativity and quantum field theory. The content of this book is organized in an easy-to-use style and students will find it a helpful research guide.

Statistical Physics

Author: Roberto Piazza
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319445375
Format: PDF, ePub
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This book, provides a general introduction to the ideas and methods of statistical mechanics with the principal aim of meeting the needs of Master’s students in chemical, mechanical, and materials science engineering. Extensive introductory information is presented on many general physics topics in which students in engineering are inadequately trained, ranging from the Hamiltonian formulation of classical mechanics to basic quantum mechanics, electromagnetic fields in matter, intermolecular forces, and transport phenomena. Since engineers should be able to apply physical concepts, the book also focuses on the practical applications of statistical physics to material science and to cutting-edge technologies, with brief but informative sections on, for example, interfacial properties, disperse systems, nucleation, magnetic materials, superfluidity, and ultralow temperature technologies. The book adopts a graded approach to learning, the opening four basic-level chapters being followed by advanced “starred” sections in which special topics are discussed. Its relatively informal style, including the use of musical metaphors to guide the reader through the text, will aid self-learning.

Particles and Fundamental Interactions

Author: Sylvie Braibant
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9400724640
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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The book provides theoretical and phenomenological insights on the structure of matter, presenting concepts and features of elementary particle physics and fundamental aspects of nuclear physics. Starting with the basics (nomenclature, classification, acceleration techniques, detection of elementary particles), the properties of fundamental interactions (electromagnetic, weak and strong) are introduced with a mathematical formalism suited to undergraduate students. Some experimental results (the discovery of neutral currents and of the W± and Z0 bosons; the quark structure observed using deep inelastic scattering experiments) show the necessity of an evolution of the formalism. This motivates a more detailed description of the weak and strong interactions, of the Standard Model of the microcosm with its experimental tests, and of the Higgs mechanism. The open problems in the Standard Model of the microcosm and macrocosm are presented at the end of the book.

From Special Relativity to Feynman Diagrams

Author: Riccardo D'Auria
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319220144
Format: PDF, Docs
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This book, now in its second edition, provides an introductory course on theoretical particle physics with the aim of filling the gap that exists between basic courses of classical and quantum mechanics and advanced courses of (relativistic) quantum mechanics and field theory. After a concise but comprehensive introduction to special relativity, key aspects of relativistic dynamics are covered and some elementary concepts of general relativity introduced. Basics of the theory of groups and Lie algebras are explained, with discussion of the group of rotations and the Lorentz and Poincaré groups. In addition, a concise account of representation theory and of tensor calculus is provided. Quantization of the electromagnetic field in the radiation range is fully discussed. The essentials of the Lagrangian and Hamiltonian formalisms are reviewed, proceeding from systems with a finite number of degrees of freedom and extending the discussion to fields. The final four chapters are devoted to development of the quantum field theory, ultimately introducing the graphical description of interaction processes by means of Feynman diagrams. The book will be of value for students seeking to understand the main concepts that form the basis of contemporary theoretical particle physics and also for engineers and lecturers. An Appendix on some special relativity effects is added.

Concepts of Modern Physics

Author: Arthur Beiser
Publisher: McGraw-Hill Science, Engineering & Mathematics
ISBN: 9780072448481
Format: PDF, ePub
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Intended to be used in a one-semester course covering modern physics for students who have already had basic physics and calculus courses. Focusing on the ideas, this book considers relativity and quantum ideas to provide a framework for understanding the physics of atoms and nuclei.

Structure of Matter

Author: Attilio Rigamonti
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319178970
Format: PDF
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This textbook, now in its third edition, provides a formative introduction to the structure of matter that will serve as a sound basis for students proceeding to more complex courses, thus bridging the gap between elementary physics and topics pertaining to research activities. The focus is deliberately limited to key concepts of atoms, molecules and solids, examining the basic structural aspects without paying detailed attention to the related properties. For many topics the aim has been to start from the beginning and to guide the reader to the threshold of advanced research. This edition includes four new chapters dealing with relevant phases of solid matter (magnetic, electric and superconductive) and the related phase transitions. The book is based on a mixture of theory and solved problems that are integrated into the formal presentation of the arguments. Readers will find it invaluable in enabling them to acquire basic knowledge in the wide and wonderful field of condensed matter and to understand how phenomenological properties originate from the microscopic, quantum features of nature.

Introductory Quantum Mechanics

Author: Paul R. Berman
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319685988
Format: PDF, Kindle
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This book presents a basic introduction to quantum mechanics. Depending on the choice of topics, it can be used for a one-semester or two-semester course. An attempt has been made to anticipate the conceptual problems students encounter when they first study quantum mechanics. Wherever possible, examples are given to illustrate the underlying physics associated with the mathematical equations of quantum mechanics. To this end, connections are made with corresponding phenomena in classical mechanics and electromagnetism. The problems at the end of each chapter are intended to help students master the course material and to explore more advanced topics. Many calculations exploit the extraordinary capabilities of computer programs such as Mathematica, MatLab, and Maple. Students are urged to use these programs, just as they had been urged to use calculators in the past. The treatment of various topics is rather complete, in that most steps in derivations are included. Several of the chapters go beyond what is traditionally covered in an introductory course. The goal of the presentation is to provide the students with a solid background in quantum mechanics.

Curves and Surfaces

Author: M. Abate
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 8847019419
Format: PDF, Docs
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The book provides an introduction to Differential Geometry of Curves and Surfaces. The theory of curves starts with a discussion of possible definitions of the concept of curve, proving in particular the classification of 1-dimensional manifolds. We then present the classical local theory of parametrized plane and space curves (curves in n-dimensional space are discussed in the complementary material): curvature, torsion, Frenet’s formulas and the fundamental theorem of the local theory of curves. Then, after a self-contained presentation of degree theory for continuous self-maps of the circumference, we study the global theory of plane curves, introducing winding and rotation numbers, and proving the Jordan curve theorem for curves of class C2, and Hopf theorem on the rotation number of closed simple curves. The local theory of surfaces begins with a comparison of the concept of parametrized (i.e., immersed) surface with the concept of regular (i.e., embedded) surface. We then develop the basic differential geometry of surfaces in R3: definitions, examples, differentiable maps and functions, tangent vectors (presented both as vectors tangent to curves in the surface and as derivations on germs of differentiable functions; we shall consistently use both approaches in the whole book) and orientation. Next we study the several notions of curvature on a surface, stressing both the geometrical meaning of the objects introduced and the algebraic/analytical methods needed to study them via the Gauss map, up to the proof of Gauss’ Teorema Egregium. Then we introduce vector fields on a surface (flow, first integrals, integral curves) and geodesics (definition, basic properties, geodesic curvature, and, in the complementary material, a full proof of minimizing properties of geodesics and of the Hopf-Rinow theorem for surfaces). Then we shall present a proof of the celebrated Gauss-Bonnet theorem, both in its local and in its global form, using basic properties (fully proved in the complementary material) of triangulations of surfaces. As an application, we shall prove the Poincaré-Hopf theorem on zeroes of vector fields. Finally, the last chapter will be devoted to several important results on the global theory of surfaces, like for instance the characterization of surfaces with constant Gaussian curvature, and the orientability of compact surfaces in R3.

An Introduction to Thermodynamics and Statistical Physics

Author: Piero Olla
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319061887
Format: PDF, ePub
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This textbook offers an advanced undergraduate or initial graduate level introduction to topics such as kinetic theory, equilibrium statistical mechanics and the theory of fluctuations from a modern perspective. The aim is to provide the reader with the necessary tools of probability theory and thermodynamics (especially the thermodynamic potentials) to enable subsequent study at advanced graduate level. At the same time, the book offers a bird's eye view on arguments that are often disregarded in the main curriculum courses. Further features include a focus on the interdisciplinary nature of the subject and in-depth discussion of alternative interpretations of the concept of entropy. While some familiarity with basic concepts of thermodynamics and probability theory is assumed, this does not extend beyond what is commonly obtained in basic undergraduate curriculum courses.